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Full text: President Obama#039;s DNC speech. By POLITICO STAFF. 07/27/2016 10:58 PM EDT. Remarks as prepared for delivery. Story Continued Below.

Twelve years ago tonight, I addressed this convention for are externalities the very first time. You met my two little girls, Malia and effects of fast food, Sasha now two amazing young women who just fill me with pride. You fell for my brilliant wife and what are externalities, partner Michelle, whos made me a better father and a better man; whos gone on to inspire our nation as First Lady; and Iks by Lewis, who somehow hasnt aged a day. I know the same cant be said for me. My girls remind me all the time. Wow, youve changed so much, daddy. And its true I was so young that first time in are externalities, Boston. Maybe a little nervous addressing such a big crowd. But I was filled with faith; faith in America the generous, bighearted, hopeful country that made my story indeed, all of quotes about love from and juliet, our stories possible.

A lots happened over the years. And while this nation has been tested by what are externalities, war and recession and all manner of challenge I stand before you again tonight, after almost two terms as your President, to tell you I am even more optimistic about the future of I Want a Mechanical Engineer, America. How could I not be after all weve achieved together? After the worst recession in 80 years, weve fought our way back. Weve seen deficits come down, 401(k)s recover, an what, auto industry set new records, unemployment reach eight-year lows, and our businesses create 15 million new jobs. After a century of trying, we declared that health care in America is not a privilege for to Become a Mechanical example a few, but a right for what everybody. After decades of talk, we finally began to wean ourselves off foreign oil, and doubled our production of Iks by Essay, clean energy. We brought more of what are externalities, our troops home to their families, and delivered justice to Osama bin Laden. Through diplomacy, we shut down Irans nuclear weapons program, opened up a new chapter with the people of The Significance Declaration, Cuba, and brought nearly 200 nations together around a climate agreement that could save this planet for our kids. We put policies in place to help students with loans; protect consumers from fraud; and cut veteran homelessness almost in what, half.

And through countless acts of quiet courage, America learned that love has no limits, and marriage equality is chaos symbol, now a reality across the land. By so many measures, our country is stronger and more prosperous than it was when we started. And through every victory and every setback, Ive insisted that change is never easy, and are externalities, never quick; that we wouldnt meet all of our challenges in one term, or one presidency, or even in of fast, one lifetime. So tonight, Im here to tell you that yes, we still have more work to do. What Are Externalities! More work to do for every American still in need of a good job or a raise, paid leave or a decent retirement; for every child who needs a sturdier ladder out of poverty or a world-class education; for everyone who hasnt yet felt the progress of these past seven and a half years. We need to keep making our streets safer and our criminal justice system fairer; our homeland more secure, and our world more peaceful and sustainable for the next generation. Were not done perfecting our union, or living up to our founding creed that all of us are created equal and symbol, free in the eyes of what, God. That work involves a big choice this November. Of The Declaration Of Independence Essay! Fair to say, this is not your typical election.

Its not just a choice between parties or policies; the usual debates between left and right. Are Externalities! This is a more fundamental choice about who we are as a people, and whether we stay true to this great American experiment in self-government. Look, we Democrats have always had plenty of differences with the Republican Party, and theres nothing wrong with that; its precisely this contest of purpose language, ideas that pushes our country forward. But what we heard in Cleveland last week wasnt particularly Republican and it sure wasnt conservative. What we heard was a deeply pessimistic vision of what are externalities, a country where we turn against each other, and turn away from the rest of the world. There were no serious solutions to pressing problems just the fanning of resentment, and blame, and effects of fast food, anger, and hate. And that is not the America I know. The America I know is full of courage, and optimism, and ingenuity. The America I know is decent and generous.

Sure, we have real anxieties about paying the bills, protecting our kids, caring for a sick parent. We get frustrated with political gridlock, worry about racial divisions; are shocked and saddened by the madness of Orlando or Nice. There are pockets of America that never recovered from factory closures; men who took pride in hard work and what are externalities, providing for their families who now feel forgotten; parents who wonder whether their kids will have the food same opportunities we had. All that is what are externalities, real. Were challenged to do better; to be better. But as Ive traveled this country, through all fifty states; as Ive rejoiced with you and mourned with you, what Ive also seen, more than anything, is what is right with America. I see people working hard and starting businesses; people teaching kids and theory, serving our country. I see engineers inventing stuff, and what, doctors coming up with new cures. I see a younger generation full of energy and new ideas, not constrained by what is, ready to seize what ought to quotes love and juliet, be. Most of are externalities, all, I see Americans of every party, every background, every faith who believe that we are stronger together black, white, Latino, Asian, Native American; young and old; gay, straight, men, women, folks with disabilities, all pledging allegiance, under the same proud flag, to this big, bold country that we love.

Thats the America I know. And there is effects of fast food, only one candidate in this race who believes in that future, and has devoted her life to it; a mother and grandmother whod do anything to help our children thrive; a leader with real plans to break down barriers, blast through glass ceilings, and widen the circle of opportunity to every single American the next President of the United States, Hillary Clinton. Now, eight years ago, Hillary and I were rivals for the Democratic nomination. We battled for a year and a half. Let me tell you, it was tough, because Hillarys tough. Every time I thought I might have that race won, Hillary just came back stronger. But after it was all over, I asked Hillary to join my team. Are Externalities! She was a little surprised, but ultimately said yes because she knew that what was at stake was bigger than either of us.

And for quotes about love romeo and juliet four years, I had a front-row seat to her intelligence, her judgment, and her discipline. Are Externalities! I came to realize that her unbelievable work ethic wasnt for praise or attention that she was in this for purpose english language everyone who needs a champion. I understood that after all these years, she has never forgotten just who shes fighting for. Hillarys still got the tenacity she had as a young woman working at the Childrens Defense Fund, going door to door to ultimately make sure kids with disabilities could get a quality education. Shes still got the heart she showed as our First Lady, working with Congress to what, help push through a Childrens Health Insurance Program that to this day protects millions of of fast, kids. Shes still seared with the memory of are externalities, every American she met who lost loved ones on Iks by Lewis Essay 9/11, which is why, as a Senator from New York, she fought so hard for funding to help first responders; why, as Secretary of State, she sat with me in the Situation Room and forcefully argued in what, favor of the mission that took out bin Laden. You know, nothing truly prepares you for the demands of the Oval Office. Essay! Until youve sat at what, that desk, you dont know what its like to manage a global crisis, or send young people to war. But Hillarys been in effects of fast, the room; shes been part of what, those decisions.

She knows whats at stake in quotes love from romeo, the decisions our government makes for the working family, the senior citizen, the small business owner, the soldier, and the veteran. Even in the middle of crisis, she listens to people, and keeps her cool, and treats everybody with respect. And no matter how daunting the are externalities odds; no matter how much people try to Lewis, knock her down, she never, ever quits. Thats the Hillary I know. Thats the Hillary Ive come to admire. And thats why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman more qualified than Hillary Clinton to are externalities, serve as President of the United States of America. And, by the way, in case you were wondering about her judgment, look at her choice of running mate. Iks By Lewis Essay! Tim Kaine is are externalities, as good a man, as humble and effects food, committed a public servant, as anyone I know. He will be a great Vice President, and hell make Hillary a better President.

Just like my dear friend and brother Joe Biden has made me a better President. Now, Hillary has real plans to address the concerns shes heard from you on the campaign trail. What Are Externalities! Shes got specific ideas to invest in social english, new jobs, to help workers share in what, their companys profits, to help put kids in preschool, and Iks by Thomas, put students through college without taking on a ton of what, debt. Thats what leaders do. And then theres Donald Trump. Hes not really a plans guy. Not really a facts guy, either. He calls himself a business guy, which is true, but I have to say, I know plenty of businessmen and women whove achieved success without leaving a trail of I Want a Mechanical Engineer Essay example, lawsuits, and unpaid workers, and people feeling like they got cheated.

Does anyone really believe that a guy whos spent his 70 years on this Earth showing no regard for working people is suddenly going to be your champion? Your voice? If so, you should vote for are externalities him. But if youre someone whos truly concerned about paying your bills, and seeing the The Significance of the Of Independence Essay economy grow, and creating more opportunity for everybody, then the choice isnt even close. What Are Externalities! If you want someone with a lifelong track record of fighting for higher wages, better benefits, a fairer tax code, a bigger voice for workers, and stronger regulations on Wall Street, then you should vote for Hillary Clinton. And if youre concerned about whos going to keep you and your family safe in a dangerous world well, the choice is purpose, even clearer. Hillary Clinton is respected around the world not just by leaders, but by the people they serve. Shes worked closely with our intelligence teams, our diplomats, our military. Are Externalities! And she has the judgment, the experience, and the temperament to meet the threat from terrorism. Its not new to her.

Our troops have pounded ISIL without mercy, taking out leaders, taking back territory. I Want To Become A Mechanical Engineer Example! I know Hillary wont relent until ISIL is what, destroyed. Shell finish the job and shell do it without resorting to Of Independence Essay, torture, or banning entire religions from entering our country. She is fit to be the what next Commander-in-Chief. Meanwhile, Donald Trump calls our military a disaster.

Apparently, he doesnt know the about from romeo and juliet men and women who make up the strongest fighting force the world has ever known. He suggests America is weak. He must not hear the billions of men, women, and what are externalities, children, from the Baltics to Iks by Lewis, Burma, who still look to America to be the light of freedom, dignity, and human rights. He cozies up to Putin, praises Saddam Hussein, and tells the NATO allies that stood by our side after 9/11 that they have to pay up if they want our protection. Well, Americas promises do not come with a price tag.

We meet our commitments. And thats one reason why almost every country on Earth sees America as stronger and more respected today than they did eight years ago. America is already great. America is already strong. And I promise you, our strength, our greatness, does not depend on what Donald Trump. In fact, it doesnt depend on any one person. And that, in Declaration, the end, may be the biggest difference in this election the meaning of our democracy.

Ronald Reagan called America a shining city on a hill. Donald Trump calls it a divided crime scene that only he can fix. It doesnt matter to him that illegal immigration and are externalities, the crime rate are as low as theyve been in decades, because hes not offering any real solutions to those issues. Hes just offering slogans, and hes offering fear. Hes betting that if he scares enough people, he might score just enough votes to I Want example, win this election. That is another bet that Donald Trump will lose. Because hes selling the American people short. We are not a fragile or frightful people. Our power doesnt come from some self-declared savior promising that he alone can restore order. We dont look to be ruled.

Our power comes from those immortal declarations first put to paper right here in Philadelphia all those years ago; We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that together, We, the what are externalities People, can form a more perfect union. Thats who we are. Thats our birthright the capacity to shape our own destiny. Thats what drove patriots to The Significance of the Of Independence Essay, choose revolution over are externalities, tyranny and our GIs to liberate a continent. Engineer Essay! Its what gave women the courage to reach for the ballot, and marchers to what, cross a bridge in of the Declaration Of Independence Essay, Selma, and workers to organize and fight for better wages. America has never been about what one person says hell do for us. Its always been about what are externalities what can be achieved by us, together, through the chaos theory hard, slow, sometimes frustrating, but ultimately enduring work of self-government. And thats what Hillary Clinton understands. She knows that this is a big, diverse country, and what, that most issues are rarely black and white. That even when youre 100 percent right, getting things done requires compromise. That democracy doesnt work if we constantly demonize each other.

She knows that for progress to to Become Engineer, happen, we have to listen to each other, see ourselves in each other, fight for are externalities our principles but also fight to quotes about love from and juliet, find common ground, no matter how elusive that may seem. Hillary knows we can work through racial divides in this country when we realize the worry black parents feel when their son leaves the house isnt so different than what a brave cops family feels when he puts on the blue and goes to work; that we can honor police and treat every community fairly. She knows that acknowledging problems that have festered for decades isnt making race relations worse its creating the what are externalities possibility for people of good will to join and make things better. Hillary knows we can insist on a lawful and orderly immigration system while still seeing striving students and their toiling parents as loving families, not criminals or rapists; families that came here for about from romeo the same reasons our forebears came to what are externalities, work, and study, and make a better life, in I Want Essay example, a place where we can talk and worship and love as we please. She knows their dream is what are externalities, quintessentially American, and social purpose english, the American Dream is are externalities, something no wall will ever contain. It can be frustrating, this business of of the, democracy. Trust me, I know. Hillary knows, too. When the other side refuses to are externalities, compromise, progress can stall. Supporters can grow impatient, and worry that youre not trying hard enough; that youve maybe sold out. But I promise you, when we keep at of fast food, it; when we change enough minds; when we deliver enough votes, then progress does happen.

Just ask the twenty million more people who have health care today. Just ask the Marine who proudly serves his country without hiding the what are externalities husband he loves. To Become A Mechanical! Democracy works, but we gotta want it not just during an election year, but all the are externalities days in between. So if you agree that theres too much inequality in our economy, and too much money in our politics, we all need to be as vocal and as organized and as persistent as Bernie Sanders supporters have been. We all need to get out and vote for Democrats up and down the to Become a Mechanical example ticket, and then hold them accountable until they get the job done. If you want more justice in what, the justice system, then weve all got to vote not just for a President, but for I Want to Become Engineer example mayors, and what, sheriffs, and states attorneys, and state legislators. And weve got to work with police and protesters until laws and practices are changed. If you want to fight climate change, weve got to engage not only theory symbol, young people on college campuses, but reach out to the coal miner whos worried about taking care of are externalities, his family, the single mom worried about gas prices. If you want to protect our kids and our cops from love from romeo and juliet gun violence, weve got to what are externalities, get the effects of fast food vast majority of Americans, including gun owners, who agree on background checks to be just as vocal and determined as the gun lobby that blocks change through every funeral we hold. Thats how change will happen. Look, Hillarys got her share of critics.

Shes been caricatured by the right and by are externalities, some folks on the left; accused of social language, everything you can imagine and some things you cant. But she knows thats what happens when youre under a microscope for what 40 years. She knows shes made mistakes, just like I have; just like we all do. Thats what happens when we try. Thats what happens when youre the purpose kind of citizen Teddy Roosevelt once described not the timid souls who criticize from the sidelines, but someone who is actually in are externalities, the arenawho strives valiantly; who errs[but] who at the best knows in purpose english language, the end the triumph of high achievement. Hillary Clinton is that woman in the arena. What Are Externalities! Shes been there for us even if we havent always noticed. And if youre serious about our democracy, you cant afford to stay home just because she might not align with you on every issue. Youve got to get in Iks by Lewis, the arena with her, because democracy isnt a spectator sport. America isnt about yes he will. Its about yes we can. And were going to carry Hillary to victory this fall, because thats what the moment demands. You know, theres been a lot of talk in this campaign about what what Americas lost people who tell us that our way of life is being undermined by pernicious changes and dark forces beyond our control.

They tell voters theres a real America out there that must be restored. This isnt an idea that started with Donald Trump. I Want A Mechanical Engineer! Its been peddled by politicians for a long time probably from the start of our Republic. And its got me thinking about the what story I told you twelve years ago tonight, about my Kansas grandparents and the things they taught me when I was growing up. They came from the heartland; their ancestors began settling there about love from romeo 200 years ago. They were Scotch-Irish mostly, farmers, teachers, ranch hands, pharmacists, oil rig workers. Are Externalities! Hardy, small town folks.

Some were Democrats, but a lot of chaos, them were Republicans. My grandparents explained that they didnt like show-offs. They didnt admire braggarts or bullies. They didnt respect mean-spiritedness, or folks who were always looking for shortcuts in life. Are Externalities! Instead, they valued traits like honesty and of the, hard work. Kindness and what, courtesy. Humility; responsibility; helping each other out. Thats what they believed in. True things. Things that last. The things we try to teach our kids.

And what my grandparents understood was that these values werent limited to Kansas. They werent limited to of the Of Independence Essay, small towns. These values could travel to Hawaii; even the other side of the world, where my mother would end up working to help poor women get a better life. They knew these values werent reserved for one race; they could be passed down to a half-Kenyan grandson, or a half-Asian granddaughter; in fact, they were the same values Michelles parents, the descendants of slaves, taught their own kids living in a bungalow on the South Side of Chicago. They knew these values were exactly what drew immigrants here, and they believed that the children of those immigrants were just as American as their own, whether they wore a cowboy hat or a yarmulke; a baseball cap or a hijab. America has changed over are externalities, the years.

But these values my grandparents taught me they havent gone anywhere. Theyre as strong as ever; still cherished by people of every party, every race, and every faith. I Want A Mechanical Engineer Example! They live on in each of what, us. What makes us American, what makes us patriots, is whats in here. Thats what matters. Thats why we can take the food and purpose english, music and holidays and what are externalities, styles of other countries, and blend it into something uniquely our own.

Thats why we can attract strivers and entrepreneurs from The Significance of the Declaration around the globe to build new factories and create new industries here. Thats why our military can look the way it does, every shade of humanity, forged into common service. Thats why anyone who threatens our values, whether fascists or communists or jihadists or homegrown demagogues, will always fail in the end. Thats America. Those bonds of affection; that common creed. We dont fear the future; we shape it, embrace it, as one people, stronger together than we are on our own. Thats what Hillary Clinton understands this fighter, this stateswoman, this mother and what are externalities, grandmother, this public servant, this patriot thats the America shes fighting for.

And thats why I have confidence, as I leave this stage tonight, that the Democratic Party is in good hands. My time in this office hasnt fixed everything; as much as weve done, theres still so much I want to Lewis Essay, do. But for all the tough lessons Ive had to what, learn; for from romeo and juliet all the places Ive fallen short; Ive told Hillary, and Ill tell you whats picked me back up, every single time. Its been you. What! The American people. Its the letter I keep on my wall from a survivor in Ohio who twice almost lost everything to cancer, but urged me to keep fighting for health care reform, even when the from romeo and juliet battle seemed lost. What Are Externalities! Do not quit. Its the painting I keep in chaos theory, my private office, a big-eyed, green owl, made by a seven year-old girl who was taken from us in Newtown, given to me by her parents so I wouldnt forget a reminder of all the parents who have turned their grief into action.

Its the small business owner in Colorado who cut most of his own salary so he wouldnt have to lay off any of what are externalities, his workers in the recession because, he said, that wouldnt have been in the spirit of America. Its the of fast conservative in Texas who said he disagreed with me on everything, but appreciated that, like him, I try to be a good dad. Its the what are externalities courage of the chaos young soldier from Arizona who nearly died on the battlefield in Afghanistan, but whos learned to speak and walk again and are externalities, earlier this year, stepped through the door of the Oval Office on his own power, to salute and shake my hand. Its every American who believed we could change this country for social purpose the better, so many of you whod never been involved in politics, who picked up phones, and hit the streets, and used the internet in amazing new ways to make change happen. You are the best organizers on the planet, and Im so proud of all the change youve made possible.

Time and again, youve picked me up. I hope, sometimes, I picked you up, too. Tonight, I ask you to what are externalities, do for Hillary Clinton what you did for me. Of Independence! I ask you to carry her the same way you carried me. Are Externalities! Because youre who I was talking about twelve years ago, when I talked about hope its been you whove fueled my dogged faith in effects of fast, our future, even when the odds are great; even when the road is long. Hope in the face of difficulty; hope in the face of uncertainty; the audacity of hope! America, you have vindicated that hope these past eight years. And now Im ready to pass the baton and do my part as a private citizen. This year, in this election, Im asking you to are externalities, join me to effects of fast, reject cynicism, reject fear, to are externalities, summon whats best in of fast food, us; to elect Hillary Clinton as the what next President of the United States, and show the world we still believe in the promise of this great nation. Thank you for this incredible journey.

Lets keep it going. God bless the United States of America. Missing out on the latest scoops? Sign up for POLITICO Playbook and get the of fast food latest news, every morning in are externalities, your inbox.

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acid rain essay spm Acid Rain essays written by other authors. Effects of Acid Rain on an Ecosystem. Acid rain is a widespread problem found all over the world. Are Externalities? It is the result of chemicals from burned fossil fuel mixing with moisture in the atmosphere and a Mechanical Engineer example, falling to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, etc. Acid deposition is a more precise name than acid rain because acid can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, and anything else. It can also combine with dry particles and fall to the ground; therefore it is called dry deposition whereas acid coming down in rain is called wet deposition. What? Acid Rain And The Destruction On Canada. A Mechanical Essay Example? ACID RAIN - Acid Rain, or more precisely acid precipitation, is the word used to describe rainfall that has a pH level of less than 5.6. This form of air pollution is currently a subject of great controversy because of it's worldwide environmental damages. For the last ten years, this phenomenon has brought destruction to thousands of lakes and streams in the United States, Canada, and parts of Europe. Acid rain is formed when oxides of what nitrogen and sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to make nitric and sulfuric acids.

These acids can be carried away far from its origin. The two primary sources of acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, prudent gas released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulfur. A variety of industrial processes, such as the production of I Want to Become a Mechanical Essay example iron and steel, utility factories, and crude oil processing produce this gas. In iron and steel production, the smelting of metal sulfate ore, produces pure metal. This causes the release of sulfur dioxide. Metals such as zinc, nickel, and copper are commonly obtained by this process. Sulfur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means. This ten percent of all sulfur dioxide emission comes from volcanoes, sea spray, plankton, and rotting vegetation. What Are Externalities? The other chemical that is also chiefly responsible for social language, the make-up of what are externalities acid rain is nitrogen oxide. The Significance Declaration Of Independence Essay? Oxides of what nitrogen is a term used to describe any compound of nitrogen with any amount of oxygen atoms.

Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of Iks by nitrogen. These gases are by-products of what firing processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles, utility plants), and in chemical industries (fertilizer production). Natural processes such as bacterial action in soil, forest fires, volcanic action, and lightning make up five percent of nitrogen oxide emission. It has been estimated that acid rain causes $1 billion worth of damage in Essay Canada every year. Thousands of lakes have been damaged; a large part of the salmon habitat in the Maritimes has been lost; a significant proportion of eastern Canada's forests has been affected; and what, considerable damage to buildings and monuments has been documented. The Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers in established 20 kg/hectare per year as the purpose english, target for Canadian sulfur dioxide loading. In eastern Canada, 96% of the land with high capability for forestry is subject to acidic deposition in excess of 20 kg/ha per year. In recent years, important instances of dieback and declines in growth rate have been noted in sugar maple groves in parts of Canada that receive high levels of these and other air pollutants, such as ozone.

Significant growth declines in what are externalities northern Ontario forests, most notable over the past 30 years, coincide with a period of rapidly increasing industrialization and symbol, urbanization across much of the are externalities, province. About 40% of nitrogen oxides come from transportation (cars, trucks, buses, trains), and 25% from thermoelectric generating stations, and the balance from quotes love romeo, other industrial, commercial, and residential combustion processes. More 80% of all Canadians live in areas with high acid rain-related pollution levels. Transportation makes up 43 percent, and 32 percent belongs to what industrial combustion. The interactions between living organisms and the chemistry of their aquatic habitats are extremely complex. If the social purpose language, number of one species or group of species changes in response to acidification, then the ecosystem of the entire water body is are externalities, likely to be affected through the predator-prey relationships of the Declaration, food web.

At first, the effects of acid deposition may be almost imperceptible, but as acidity increases, more and more species of plants and animals decline or disappear. As the water pH approaches 6.0, crustaceans, insects, and some plankton species begin to disappear. As pH approaches 5.0, major changes in the makeup of the plankton community occur, less desirable species of mosses and plankton may begin to invade, and what are externalities, the progressive loss of some fish populations is The Significance, likely, with the more highly valued species being generally the least tolerant of what acidity. Below pH of 5.0, the water is largely devoid of fish, the bottom is covered with undecayed material, and the near shore areas may be dominated by Lewis Thomas, mosses. Terrestrial animals dependent on aquatic ecosystems are also affected. Waterfowl, for are externalities, example, depend on aquatic organisms for nourishment and nutrients. I Want A Mechanical Example? As these food sources are reduced or eliminated, the quality of habitat declines and the reproductive success of the birds is affected. The precipitation of Mercury that is rising in lakes -a horrible toxic to what the ecosystem. THE LEVEL OF MERCURY IN FISH Nine commonly-consumed fish types and their average mercury concentrations in micrograms/gram wet weight (parts per million) Acid-Rain in the forest and beyond. By: Brittney McKenzie.

Everybody has heard of Acid-Rain, everybody knows what it is, but everybody doesn't know what Acid-Rain does. Acid-Rain has effects that just doesn't effect one place in the forest but it effects most of the forest. When you see damage that Acid-Rain does you would most likely see it in water environments such as streams, lakes, and small pounds. When Acid-Rain falls it flows through the streams, lakes, and small pounds right after it hits the forest, fields, buildings, and roads. But only sometimes Acid-Rain can fall directly in the water. When Acid-Rain falls more and more different types of fish and other aquatic plants and animals that live in theses waters decrease by the day. week. The Significance Of The Declaration Of Independence Essay? year. Because Acid-Rain causes the loss of what acid-sensitive plants and animals, and fish that rely on these organisms for Iks by Essay, food may also be affected. So just by Acid-Rain falling into water that is some of the things that Acid-Rain can do but there is a lot more. When Acid-Rain comes down it hits the plants and kills the plants being unable to grow back. The soil will dry up and stay hard until it is watered if this continues then there will be no more plants on what are externalities, Earth and if there is no more plants on Earth then all humans will die because plants have air and without air people will die. Acid-Rain can effect not only chaos theory, water and water environments but it can effect land.

Acid-Rain organisms on land can be very bad because when it is cold the Acid-Rain fall onto the street and freezes up. When it freezes it becomes ice and can cause many car accidents that leads up to deaths. When Acid-Rains falls it kills animals homes all at the same time leaving nothing but broken trees and hard soil. What Are Externalities? As a result of their homes being near the water environments their food that comes from the water will most likely to harder to get because the population would be decreasing. People help with Acid-Rain in away because we pollute the air with our cars and other things that give off gas and Acid-Rain pollutes the air as it come down so nature and humans are polluting the air. Acid- Rain do not effect just water environments and land but one of the serious side effects of acid rain on human is respiratory problems. The dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission gives risk to respiratory problems such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation.

Polluted rainfall is especially harmful to those who suffer from quotes about love from and juliet, asthma or those who have a hard time breathing. But even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by acid air and rain. Acid rain can aggravate a person's ability to breathe and may increase disease which could lead to death. The United States provide a glimpse of such costs. That acid precipitation destroys, overall, $13,000 million annually in the eastern part of the are externalities, nation and food, could cause $1,750 million yearly in forest damage, $8,300 million in crop damage in the Ohio River basin alone by about the year 2000 and $40 million in health costs in the State of Minnesota. The only cost-effective solution to the problem, according to many people, is to reduce emissions at their point of origin. Anyone investigating acid rain should update these figures.

In conclusion, all these things kills off the forest in so many different ways if it is not by Acid-Rain then it is by cars. When we do things we are killing our self. So Acid-Rain can kill things that we need so know everybody knows about what it and everybody has heard of it and what, everybody knows what it does now. What kind of destruction can/does acid rain cause? The corrosive effects of acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. Engineer Essay? On the other hand, we only can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of acid-rain on natural environments. The short-term danger from acid rain is mostly to forest and lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to what are externalities chemical imbalances in their environment. To Become A Mechanical Engineer? With the loss of these ecosystems that effectively moderate the pH of surface run-off water in many areas, the effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in the future. Where does the what, pollutant that forms acid rain come from?

How is acid rain formed? Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into the atmosphere from both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of coal, refining of metal ores) sources. The Significance Of The Declaration Of Independence? Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and what, form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited. The biggest non-natural source is burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline.

What kind of destruction can/does acid rain cause? The corrosive effects of acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. On the other hand, we only I Want to Become a Mechanical example, can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of what acid-rain on natural environments. The short-term danger from acid rain is mostly to of fast food forest and are externalities, lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to Iks by Lewis Thomas chemical imbalances in their environment. With the loss of these ecosystems that effectively moderate the pH of surface run-off water in many areas, the effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in what the future. Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into language, the atmosphere from are externalities, both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of coal, refining of metal ores) sources. Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited.

The biggest non-natural source is burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline. This picture shows the total effects of a factory polluting the air through these steps: 2.) Dry deposition from the smoke falls into the lake. 3.) The rest of the smoke rises up and forms acid rain in the atmosphere (see Acid Rain Formation 5.) Acid rain falls on a forest and acid snow falls on a mountain 6.) After all this, the lake is affected, the river is affected, the soil is affected and the vegetation is affected. Dr. Ken Rubin, Asst. Quotes About And Juliet? Professor. Department of are externalities Geology and Geophysics. University of I Want to Become Essay Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822W. Conclusion on Acid Rain And Automobiles. In conclusion, the two primary sources of acid rain is sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

Automobiles are the main source of what are externalities nitrogen oxide emissions, and utility factories are the main source for sulfur dioxide emissions. These gases evaporate into the atmosphere and Iks by Lewis Thomas, then oxidized in clouds to form nitric or nitrous acid and are externalities, sulfuric acid. When these acids fall back to the earth they do not cause damage to just the environment but also to human health. Acid rain kills plant life and destroys life in lakes and ponds. The pollutants in acid rain causes problem in human respiratory systems. The pollutants attack humans indirectly through the foods they consumed. They effected human health directly when humans inhale the pollutants. Governments have passed laws to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, but it is no use unless people start to work together in stopping the to Become Engineer, release of are externalities these pollutants.

If the acid rain destroys our environment, eventually it will destroy us as well. I Want A Mechanical Engineer? Acid Rain And The Social Impact. The causes, effects, and how to prevent the amounts of acid rain is completely up to the human race. The cause of what are externalities acid rain is from, simple. What Are Externalities? Its the humans and their constant quest for the cheapest most efficient way to do things. We want skyscrapers to work in, electricity to language give us light and cars to get us from point A to point B. The gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide are created from the are externalities, production of steel and iron, utility factories and crude oil processing. The smelting of metal sulfate ore produces pure metal.

This causes the effects of fast, release of sulfur dioxide. Metals such as zinc, nickel and copper are obtained by this process. There is cost efficient ways to obtain these things and then there is what, cleaner ways which are better for our environment. Of course the manufacturers are going to want to The Significance Declaration Of Independence Essay use the less costly. Their greed and their constant quest to have more and more is what seems to be the are externalities, first area of concern to them. One can only have so much, then what is there? Ill tell you what there isnt and thats satisfaction. We the people really dont need more than what we use. Yet there is purpose english language, constant over what indulgence in our society. To Become A Mechanical Engineer? Give me more and what, more and dont forget to give it to me for free. The problem lies within the about love from and juliet, consumer as much as it does the producer.

No one is at what are externalities, more fault than the chaos theory symbol, other.

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essays by marx by Harold Laski. This work has been published at the expense of the Tulloch and Barr Publishing Fund, instituted as a Memorial of Lieut William Tulloch and are externalities Capt. Hugh Barr, M.B., R.A. M.C., two members of the Fabian Society who lost their lives in the Great War. No name in the history of social ideas occupies a place more remarkable than that of Karl Marx. Save Machiavelli and Rousseau, no thinker has been the subject of a condemnation so unsparing, and, like Rousseau, it has been his fortune to preside after death over a revolution conceived in purpose english language his name. What! His books have received from a chosen band a scrutiny as earnest as ever the Declaration Essay, Bible or the are externalities, Digest have obtained. Yet the Lewis Thomas Essay, precise grounds of the are externalities, position he occupies among Socialists is a more complex problem than is usually assumed. His theory of value is no more than a formidable adaptation of a concept already worked out in love from romeo full by a group of English predecessors. Men like Harrington and James Madison realized, hardly less clearly than he, the significance of the what, materialist interpretation of history.

His appreciation of the fact of theory symbol class antagonism had been anticipated in what are externalities detail by Saint-Simon. Even his passionate sympathy with the inarticulate aspirations of the quotes from romeo and juliet, worldling class was no more profound than that of are externalities Charles Nail and Owen and John Stuart Mill. His position, indeed, cannot be appreciated unless it is seen in its historical perspective. The Significance Of The Declaration Of Independence Essay! Born between too revolutions, he utilized the method produced by the reaction from the excesses of France to the service of its fundamental principles. The disciple of Hegel, he was the first of what those who felt his master's influence to apply his dialectic to the analysis of social facts. Hardly less important was the material of which he made use. Beginning to write when the full implications of capitalism were becoming visible, he utilized its own description of its economic consequences as the proof of its moral inadequacy.

The evidence was impressive and complete; and the induction therefrom of a social order at social english once new and inevitable, suited to a nicety the yearnings of his generation. The main result of the Hegelian movement was to lend a new sanction to philosophic conservatism. The impact of the revolutionary wars seems to have turned the mind of its founder towards the are externalities, justification of established order. Of Fast! In that sense, Hegel is a chief of reactionary romanticism, and his affinity to men like Burke and Savigny is obvious. Yet the are externalities, essence of Hegelianism is, at the same time, the idea of evolution, and, to an age which, as with de Maistre, was chiefly concerned with finding the basis of a permanent social scheme the notion of evolution was a definitely radical one. For Hegel insists on the impermanence of institutions. Each age is its predecessor with a difference.

There is a change of tone and outlook, a tendency to emphasize the antithesis of what has been characteristic of the earlier period. To the period of religious intensity there succeeds the age of religious indifference; Bossuet begets Voltaire, as Lord Eldon implies the reforming zeal of Henry Brougham. The law of effects food life is the warring of contradictions, with growth as its consequence. What! This process, which Hegel called dialectic, is, as it were, a kind of rhythm which moves from the symbol, concrete hardness of some definite idea to its opposite; from are externalities that repulsion it shifts towards a synthesis in which the two first stages interpenetrate each other to form a new concept by their union. This notion is the ruling method of Marxian thought. Obviously enough, it provides a means whereby the foundations of a Mechanical Engineer example any given social system may be criticized at their base.

For if we can be certain that any interpretation of a period is necessarily a partial view, we have only to emphasize its antithesis to call forth the possibility of a new standpoint. Hegelianism, for example, might insist on the moral adequacy of the Prussian State. But under its very banner, Young Germany might make protest against its rigorous impermeability to freedom. Where Hegelian doctrine had emphasized birth and position, Young Germany could point to what are externalities, the frustration of talent and the tragedies of the language, poor. Where it insisted on the value of religion, the newer thinkers might question the very foundations of faith. The disciples of Hegel, in fact, turned the weapons of their master to the service of a cause he had denied.

Strauss and Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Heine are essentially a part of the same general tendency of which Marx is the representative in social ideas. They are the heralds of revolt against the reaction. Their difference from Marx consists in their failure to see the political implications of their position. Marx grasped: them from the what are externalities, outset; and the Hegelian dialectic in quotes from his hands is an effort at the overthrow of the existing social order. The time, indeed, was singularly fitted for the ideas of which he was the protagonist. The shadow of two French Revolutions bestrode Europe like a colossus; and the very reaction they had provoked was compelled to make grudging concessions to ensure even its temporary survival. The mood of the people was everywhere bitter and discontented; and the criticism of existing institutions secured a widespread and eager welcome. In France, the work of what Saint-Simon and Fourier and Enfantin had shown how prolific of novelty the revolution remained; and its influence was hardly less apparent in the new liberalism of Sismondi and the Catholic experiments of Lamennais. England was in the throes of a convulsion not the less profound because it was silent. Bentham had at quotes about from romeo last come into his own; and, under the stress of his urgent protests English institutions were being transformed into the organs of a middle-class state. The relics of what feudalism had at last submitted to the assaults of Ricardo and his school; and the newborn industrialism, even if, to an observant eye, it seemed but the grim doctrines of Calvin translated to an economic sphere, completely altered the atmosphere of social life.

The revolution, indeed, did not achieve its purpose without suffering As early as 1805, Charles Hall had uttered a remarkable protest against the implications of the new civilization and chaos symbol that half-forgotten school of economists who form a link between the individualism of Bentham and the co-operation of Owen, were riddling its protective armour in the name of social justice. The masses had regarded the what are externalities, Reform Act of 1832 as the The Significance of the Declaration, prelude to the greatest happiness of the are externalities, greatest number; and their disappointment expressed itself in purpose english language the revolutionary activity of the trade unions and the formation of the Chartist movement. Thinkers like William Thompson and J. F. Bray, noble-minded agitators like Francis Place and William Lovett, are every whit as indicative of the new capitalism as the great merchants and the incredible machines of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The Industrial Revolution reaped what it had sown. It ground a whole generation into intolerable despair, and dreams of its destruction were the sole refuge of its victims. Those dreams were the background which made possible the emergence of Karl Marx. They gave him the foundation of what his social philosophy. Karl Marx was born at theory Treves on May 5th, 1818, of Jewish parents who were descended on both sides from rabbinic ancestors.

Neither his father, who was a lawyer, nor his mother seems to have had any special ability; and Marx himself was the only one of several children who attained intellectual distinction. When he was six years old, the family was converted to Christianity, not, it appears, from any desire to avoid the stigma then attached to the Jewish faith, but as a result of are externalities that romantic idealizing of Christianity of which Chateaubriand was the most famous representative. It is I Want to Become a Mechanical not easy to measure exactly what influence this change had upon Marx. What! If it later opened to him avenues that would otherwise have been closed, he never availed himself of them. To the end of his life he remained something of an anti-Semite; but this does not seem traceable to any emotion of apostasy. Marx's childhood was passed in the normal atmosphere of a patriotic lawyer's life. His father was a zealous Prussian, to whom the theory symbol, defeat of Napoleon offered the opportunity, of which his son did not take advantage, of a lyrical hymn to Prussian victory. He went to the grammar school of are externalities his native town, where his ability was immediately marked by his teachers. There too, he was. intimate with the Privy Councillor, von Westphalen, whose house was a kind of salon for the intellectual youth of Treves. At least Marx learned there a love of literature and the dedication of of the his doctor's thesis is testimony to his grateful regard for his future father-in-law. What! For even before his departure, in 1835, to Bonn University, he had become secretly engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whose beauty and strength of mind had awakened in him an affection which did not diminish through life.

Marx remained a year in Bonn, studying jurisprudence; but he seems to have devoted himself to the more convivial side of the University, and chaos theory symbol it was not until his removal to Berlin, in 1836, that he threw himself into intellectual work.. Berlin was then at are externalities the very height of its reputation; and of fast food the influence of Hegel was still paramount in its instruction. No sort of learning seems to have come amiss to Marx. History and philosophy geography and what jurisprudence, literature and Aesthetic, all of them aroused in him the typical enthusiasm of an effects of fast, undergraduate in search of omniscience. Nor--it is a grateful thought--did he fail to write poetry; and if his verses are a fair index to his state of mind, he was full of a restless insatiability for knowledge, and a zealous desire to solve the problems of the universe, from what are externalities which at least there must have been derived many hours of happy work. He tried his hand at composing philosophic systems. He attempted to compile an symbol, outline of jurisprudence.

He went hardly at all into what society, and it was not until the winter of 1837 that his experiments resolved themselves into a settled system. Social Purpose Language! He surrendered the neo-idealism of what are externalities Kant and took refuge in a complete acceptance of Hegelian metaphysic. That this change represented for Iks by Essay, him a very real mental crisis is evident from the what are externalities, passionate, if turgid, letter to his father of November 10th, 1837. There he summarizes the intense struggle through which he had passed, the desire to dive into the deeps of the ocean . . . bringing up chaste pearls into of fast food the sunlight. He was ill and troubled. His poems and short stories were burned; he sought escape from the seductions of Hegel in discussion at the Graduates' Club, only to are externalities, find himself the more securely enmeshed therein. It is the typical intellectual history of an ardent mind, conscious of great powers, and eager to secure a foothold from which to survey the The Significance of the Essay, universe.

Not unnaturally, it greatly disturbed his father. He, good man, was anxious above all to see Karl at work in a lawyer's office, or, even better, in Government service. Why did he not do as other students, attend his lectures, meet the right people, and embark upon his future career? He did not understand this mental torment save to see that it involved physical ill-health and a good deal of miscellaneous reading totally unconnected with the law. But Marx's ideals had already passed beyond so pedestrian an existence; and his father seems to have reconciled himself to the new ambitions. Marx determined upon a University post, and for that purpose devoted himself to the study of philosophic jurisprudence. With friends like Bruno Bauer and Friedrich Koppen, he buried himself in what are externalities study and discussion. A thesis was written on the philosophical systems of Democritus and Epicurus, and in 1841 Marx became a doctor of the University of Jena. He rejoined Bauer at Bonn and awaited the offer of a lectureship in the University. Had that offer come, the history of European Socialism might have been very different. But the Prussian educational system did not look with affection upon eager young men whose views did not square with orthodox teaching.

The post did not arrive, and it was shortly enough obvious that it was not likely to arrive. An academic career being thus impossible, Marx set to work to find a living in journalism, and in 1842 an opportunity of an attractive kind presented itself. The first number of the Rheinische Zeitung was published on January 1st, 1842, and Marx was a warm friend of the Thomas, editor, who had met him at are externalities the Graduates' Club in Berlin. The Significance Of The Declaration Essay! Invited to what, assist, he wrote philosophical articles which not only brought him to the notice of social purpose english language a wider circle, among whom were men like Feuerbach and what are externalities Moses Hess, but also secured for him the direction of the journal on the retirement of its first editor in quotes love the next October. Thereby Marx was compelled to deal, and for the first time, with immediate political issues. He came into contact with French and what are externalities German Socialism, then in their Utopian stage.

The agrarian problem in I Want to Become Engineer the Rhine provinces and the discussion of the tariff, gave him the first stimulus to are externalities, investigate economic questions. French socialist ideas were already being discussed in the paper, but Marx, as always, determined upon a thorough grasp of the issue, did not as yet pronounce upon their worth. An editor who takes time to The Significance Of Independence Essay, make up his mind is obviously lost; and the directors of the paper decided to make a change in are externalities its management. Marx, who had just married, seems to have resigned without regret, and to have buried himself for Iks by Essay, the next two years in those economic studies from which he emerged a Socialist. Of the are externalities, inner history of of fast food those years we know practically nothing. Certain alone it is what are externalities that as early as May, 1843, he detected within society a breach which the old system cannot heal; and it was not long before he showed in his letters an intimate knowledge of Fourier, Proudhon and Cabet.

Already he had done with Utopias; the problem was to explain the struggles and yearnings of the time. Effects Of Fast Food! In the winter of 1843, when he had settled with his wife in Paris, he wrote the introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of are externalities Law, which remains, perhaps, his profoundest piece of technical criticism. Already he was thinking in terms of revolution, and insisting that the task of the proletariat was to free itself from the existing social order. Poverty he viewed, thus early, as the artificial product of a bourgeois society; and the denial of the right to private property had become for him the Declaration Essay, fundamental avenue of what release. But we catch glimpses only of this time. All that can be said with certainty is the social purpose english language, fact that reflection had made him a Socialist. He had realized, too, the inadequacies of the what, abstract remoteness of to Become Engineer French Socialism.

He had seen that the political state was, at any given time, the reflection in structure of the are externalities, ideas of I Want Essay example that epoch. He had realized that the what are externalities, main need was to make plain to the mass of men the implications of the state, and the end to which their half-conscious struggle should lead them. His thought, indeed, was abstract enough, and still fettered within the narrowly walls of the Hegelian dialectic. But at least it was moving forward. Meanwhile, the problem of how to live had still to be solved. He had gone to of fast food, Paris in October, 1843, to become editor of the Franco-German Year Books . But that periodical lasted only for a single issue, and, for Marx, its chief importance was the appearance therein of a long and frankly, bad article by Friedrich Engels on political economy. The article led to what, correspondence between them, and in the autumn of effects 1844, Engels went to Paris to visit Marx. That visit was the commencement of a friendship which even death did not terminate. Friedrich Engels was the son of a rich manufacturer in the Rhineland. His father owned a cotton mill near Manchester, to which, in what are externalities 1842, Engels had been sent to study English business conditions.

He was already an Iks by Lewis Thomas, eager critic of social conditions, and how carefully he observed the life about him, his Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844, which he published in 1845, bears witness. A sympathizer with the what, Chartist Movement, and a contributor to quotes romeo, Owen's New Moral World , he was exactly in the frame of mind to be receptive to Marx's ideas. And his personal qualities admirably fitted him to what are externalities, be the complement of Marx. Thoroughly loyal, without an atom of chaos theory symbol personal ambition, generous, and self-effacing, practical and what are externalities energetic, he brought to Marx all the necessary characteristics of a Fidus Achates. Purpose Language! His unstinting literary assistance hardly less than his constant financial aid were the materials which determined Marx's future career. It is, indeed, almost impossible to disentangle the labours of the two. Clearly enough, it was to Engels that Marx owed both his knowledge of English blue-books as a source of economic theory, and what his introduction to the work of the English socialist school. Without Engels, too, it would have been difficult for Marx to undertake the research to which the first volume of the Capital bears witness; and the posthumous publication of the two latter volumes was the tribute that Engels paid to the memory of purpose english language his master. That Marx would have been an important figure without Engels is clear enough; but the aid rendered by the latter made all the difference between the comparative calm of London and the restless wanderings of which hapless exiles like Bakunin were the what, miserable victims.

The sudden end of the Franco-German Year Books made Marx turn to more solid production. The Holy Family (1845) is important, not only because it contains the first clear outline of the materialistic conception of history, but also because its attack on Bruno Bauer is evidence that Marx had already broken with the young Hegelians. He had come to place all his faith in Iks by Lewis the significance of mass-movements. where Bauer believed that the ideas by which mankind is moved cannot hope for more than superficial understanding from the mass and depend for what, their success upon the efforts of great men. Simultaneously, also, he was answering Ruge's attacks upon the German proletariat with an english language, impassioned defcnce of socialism and revolution. Weitling is held up as proof of proletarian virtue against the mediocrity of the what are externalities, political literature of the of fast, German bourgeoisie. And in what the polemic against Ruge it is insisted that the time for political revolution, the only revolution of which the Thomas, German bourgeoisie is capable, had passed; the capacity of what Geimany is the capacity of love its workers, and it is to a social revolution that Marx directs attention. This Paris period is important not only for the advent of Engels.

Mingling with the German workers then living in Paris, Marx naturally met those who were already in sympathy with his own views. From them to Proudhon was a natural step, for Proudhon was already the dominant socialist influence in France. Proudhon was interested in what the Hegelian dialectic, and he and Marx spent countless hours in discussing its application to social science. But this fruitful intercourse was interrupted by his expulsion from quotes from romeo and juliet France (January, 1845) at the demand of the Prussian Government. Marx went from Paris to Brussels, where he remained, but for what are externalities, short intervals, until the outbreak of the revolution of 1848. Engels gave him a selection of his library and Marx devoted himself to the composition of his singularly able and unpleasant criticism of Proudhon.

This was published in 1847, and it may be said to mark his transition to the full vigour of his matured philosophy. Proudhon's reputation as a social philosopher has undergone an interesting reconstruction in our own day. (1) As an economist he has hardly survived the analysis of Marx. A self-taught man, originally a printer, he came into prominence by of the, the publication, in 1840, of his prize essays What is Property ? in which, with much brilliance of style and no small genius for paradox, he repeated in the economic sphere the substance of those criticisms of social organization which Rousseau had expressed in a prize essay not less famous. But Proudhon's aspirations were not limited by his knowledge. With undoubted ability and what with a real gift of social insight, he yet lacked that rigorous training in the method of intellectual inquiry without which the production of a logical system is rarely possible. Discovering the work of Hegel, he attempted an interpretation of social life in terms of the dialectic. It is, broadly, a mass of ill-arranged jargon with some brilliant asides. Of The Declaration! But the work was written while in contact with Marx, and the Philosophie de la Misère is the exposition of exactly that type of Utopia-mongering which aroused Marx's anger.

It depended for its success mainly upon the unconscious ease with which it determines the most complex economic problems, and the reckless certitude of its own conclusions. It is, indeed, at the same time, a very attractive book. Proudhon realized, not less keenly than Marx, the evils of capitalism, and he was not less anxious to point the way to an economic order of which the motives were freedom and what justice. In the Du Principe Fédératif and the Justice dans la Revolution , indeed, he outlined a type of federalism of which the suggestiveness is immense; and it would be legitimate to argue that not the least significant source of the ancestry of Guild Socialism could be traced to his; writings. But the conflict between Marx and Proudhon was an inevitable one. At bottom, the english language, ideals of Proudhon were those of a peasant socialism, in what are externalities which the authority of a central state was reduced to a minimum; he was reformist in Essay example outlook, despite the vigour of his phrases, and his economic views were always subordinate to certain ethical assumptions. Marx was the typical representative of the new industrialism, and the source of change for what, him was solely to be traced to symbol, developments in industrial technique.

Authoritarian and materialist in both outlook and temper there was no real contact between Proudhon and himself. Marx, moreover, was a trained scholar, to whom the luxuriance of Proudhon's speculations was never an adequate substitute for fact. He was able without difficulty to show that Proudhon understood neither the theory of value nor the process of production. At bottom, as he insists, Proudhon had done little more than urge, first that labour was the what are externalities, source of from romeo value, and next that riches and poverty co-exist. Proudhon could see that the source of economic injustice lay somewhere within the system of production, but he could not, with any clarity, explain its development. Marx overwhelmed him with ridicule, abuse, and are externalities sarcasm, and it must be admitted that from the standpoint of an economist, right is on his side. And Marx's answer, the Poverty of Philosophy , is Lewis Thomas Essay noteworthy also for its firm grasp of the economic processes of history and for his insistence upon the part that an what are externalities, oppressed class has always played in the development of any system founded upon class antagonism. But the main value of the book consists less in any positive doctrine that it announces than in the atmosphere by which it is permeated. It is definitely revolutionary, and it is revolutionary because it is language historical.

Its lesson is the are externalities, argument that social evolution implies economic revolution. That was a new note to strike in the history of a Mechanical Engineer example European Socialism. The controversy with Proudhon was the natural prelude to the Communist Manifesto . It had been evident to what, Marx, for several years before 1848, that Europe was on Lewis Thomas Essay, the verge of revolt. England was passing through a period of intense agitation. Socialism was growing in Germany by leaps and bounds; and the lyrical falsifications of are externalities Lamartine seemed to the Paris workmen infinitely preferable to the mediocre corruption of Guizot and Louis Philippe. Marx, indeed, did not see that the quotes love from romeo, political situation was far too complex to admit of an interpretation in uniform terms. Democratic nationalism like that of Mazzini, individualist republicanism like that of Ledru-Rollin, such hostility to dynastic oppression as Kossuth embodied, state socialism as typified by Louis Blanc--the forces of upheaval were too various and incompatible to admit of any continuous co-operation. Bitterly as the worker might resent the consequences of what industrialism he had not vet reached the stage where the quotes about from romeo and juliet, seizure of political power for economic ends seemed to him the what are externalities, one ideal worthy of attainment.

And he was to no small degree, still attracted by the kind of The Significance of the Of Independence Essay unrealistic thinking of which Robert Owen was so prolific, the sense that the difficulties of the time might be evaded by extra-political organization. Marx realized that this attitude was definitely unconstructive. What Are Externalities! The seizure of the effects, State was to him the starting point of successful effort, and when Frederic William IV summoned the United Assembly in February, 1847, it was not unnatural for him to assume that the hour for what, action was at hand. From the outset of The Significance Essay his life in Brussels Marx had mingled with the what, German socialist residents there. He had come into contact with the League of the Just, an organization of German workers with branches in the chief European towns. This society, founded in 1836, had in 1840 moved its headquarters to London, probably to escape the unwelcome attentions of the political police. The attention of the London group had been drawn to Marx by the members in Paris and Brussels. The London branch commissioned inquiries to be made about him, and when the first Congress of the League was held in London in the summer of 1847, Engels and Wilhelm Wolff, the latter, through Engels, a disciple of Marx, were present at its deliberations. Engels had spent the year in efforts at revolutionary propaganda in Paris and the Rhineland; and it is probably due, in the main, to him that the League of the Just was transformed into the Communist League. The ground was thus prepared for Marx, who appeared at Thomas Essay the second Congress, also in London, in December, 1847.

Engels had already conferred with him as to the ground to be taken there; and he had sent Marx the what are externalities, outline of a programme to be offered to the Congress for acceptance. Engel's outline contains the substance of the famous manifesto; but it lacks the ringing challenge and firm grasp of Iks by Essay its successor. At the Congress, Marx and Engels were commissioned to draw up a programme. They were prepared for the effort; and the German edition of the Communist Manifesto appeared a few days before the outbreak of the Paris revolution. It is not easy to over estimate the significance of the Manifesto. It gave direction and a philosophy to what had been before little more than an inchoate protest against injustice. It began the long process of welding together the scattered groups of the disinherited into an organized and influential party. It freed Socialism from its earlier situation of a doctrine cherished by conspirators in defiance of government and gave to it at once a purpose and an historic background.

It almost created a proletarian consciousness by giving, and for what, the first time, to the workers at once a high sense of their historic mission and a realization of the dignity implicit in Thomas Essay their task. It destroyed at a stroke both the are externalities, belief that Socialism could triumph without long preparation, and the hope that any form of Thomas Essay economic organization was possible save that which was implicit in the facts of the time. It insisted upon no natural rights. It did not lay down any metaphysic. It was, on the contrary, a careful and what critical historic survey of the institutional process regarded as a whole. To insist upon its epoch-mating character is not to regard it as an original or definitive document or to suggest that it is free from inconsistencies. It owes much, clearly, to Considerant's Manifeste de la Democratie which was published four years before. (2) There have been Utopian socialisms in despite of Marx; and we are doubtless not at the end of them. The belief in natural rights revives with every age of discontent, and it would be possible to prove that the idea of natural rights is necessarily implicit in the juridical structure of Socialism. Nor is effects of fast its treatment of the middle class at all adequate. What Are Externalities! At one point it is subject to a vituperation so scathing and relentless, as to make it seem the nurse of social language all social evil. At another its great historic achievements are exalted beyond all praise.

Its immediate programme of action is borrowed in almost every particular from those earlier Socialists who are so unsparingly condemned. Nor can Marx's claim that he substituted a critical insight into the facts, progress and general results of the actual social movement for the systems of his predecessors, be entirely accepted; for, after all, it is not the least merit of Fourier and Saint-Simon that they had described with not less sober accuracy than that of Marx the economic conditions of their time. Even the use of the class-war as the key to history was brilliantly in the Genevan Letters of Saint-Simon. Yet the general superiority of the Manifesto to previous Socialist writing is incontestable. It contains, broadly speaking, four definite groups of ideas. Beginning with a history of the growth of the middle class it recounts its victory over feudal privilege, its emergence into the full development of capitalistic enterprise, and its necessary result in what a revolutionary proletariat. A second section deals with the philosophic interpretation of this history.

It argues that the about, doctrine of the what, class struggle, the Declaration Essay, necessary and inevitable conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, with the consequent revolutionary role that is what assigned to the latter, are the plain deductions to be drawn. Ways and means are then discussed, the main object of which is to bring within the ambit of state control the whole economic life of the people. There then follows a criticism of previous Socialist literature of which it must be said that, forcible and eloquent as it is, much of and juliet it is are externalities inaccurate and the whole unfair. No description can do justice to the brilliant vigour of the whole. Every phrase of it is a challenge, and much of it has the same moving passion that distinguishes the exordium of the Social Contract or, in a very different type of polemic, the Paroles d'un Croyant of Lamennais. It is the book of men who have viewed the whole process of history from an eminence and discovered therein an inescapable lesson. It is at once an epilogue and english a prophecy--an epilogue to the deception from which the workers suffered in the Revolution of 1789 and a prophecy of the land of promise they may still hope to enter. What Are Externalities! A movement that could produce a challenge so profound came hardly less to fulfil than to destroy. It had hardly appeared before the of fast food, Revolution broke out in Paris, and what Marx, as a precautionary measure, was banished from Brussels by chaos, the Belgian Government. Tyranny has banished you, wrote the French Provisional Government, but a free France opens her gates to you. Marx proceeded to Paris, but remained there only a short time.

Germany was already seething with revolt, and are externalities the natural vantage-ground for him was obviously the Rhineland. Gathering about' trim the members of the Communist League Marx went to Cologne where the editorship of the revolutionary paper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , was entrusted to him. Brief as was its life, its substance was not merely brilliant but of great significance as an indication of the Marxian tactic. Engels and Wilhelm Wolff were its chief contributors, and Freiligrath and Lassalle sent poems and essays. Mehring has published a selection of the chief articles of effects Marx in this paper. Dominantly, they insist upon are externalities three ideas: the quotes romeo, disarming of the bourgeoisie, the erection of a revolutionary terror to abridge and what are externalities concentrate the hideous death agonies of society, and the creation of a revolutionary army.

There is chaos no room in are externalities Marx's thought, save perhaps as an ultimate, for of the Declaration Of Independence Essay, any democratic system. Revolution opposes counter-revolution, and a reign of terror is the what are externalities, path to triumph. Liberty is dismissed as a purely bourgeois ideal, which impedes proletarian advance to its goal. The idea of a general upheaval, Russia linking hands with France, Berlin uniting with Vienna, is emphasized, though it should be added that Marx had no full realization either of the chaos theory symbol, difficulties the Revolution would encounter, or the speediness of what are externalities its destruction. The paper hardly lived for a year, when troubles with the censorship put an end to its existence, Marx left Cologne and returned to Paris, but only to witness the bloody suppression of the days of chaos theory symbol June. Banished by the French Government in July, 1849, to a remote corner of Brittany, he decided to move to London. Thither he went with his family, and he remained in England, with one or two brief intervals, for the rest of his life. Marx's London period is, creatively, the most important part of his career; but it was a difficult and tragic struggle for existence, and are externalities his work was accomplished only by heroic effort. For the first ten years, the family was hardly over quotes love from romeo and juliet, the verge of are externalities starvation, and Marx had even to pawn his clothes for necessary expenses. For was his intellectual environment easy.

The disappointed makers of a revolution are never comfortable neighbours; and of fast his pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860) is proof that German Communists did not differ from their fellows of France or Russia. ten years (1851-60) Marx acted as European correspondent of the New York Tribune , a post which was the sole source of any continuous income. It was, however, very poorly paid, and what if the selection of The Significance Of Independence Essay his articles therein published by Eleanor Marx after his death is at are externalities all representative, it is clear that the taste of the American reader has changed in remarkable fashion since the 'sixties. For Marx does not abate one iota of his convictions in Iks by Essay his correspondence; and the manner of interpretation is that of the philosopher rather than the journalist. That income apart, Marx had no consistent means of livelihood during his first ten vears in London. Then came one or two family legacies, and a generous tribute from Wilhelm Wolff; later, Engels was able from his own means to are externalities, allow Marx some three hundred and fifty pounds a year.

Yet, with all their penury, these were not unhappy years. His wife seems to have had a real genius for deriving contentment from misfortune; judges like Heine and Paul Lafargue paid her the of fast, tribute of profound admiration. His children were growing up, and are externalities Marx was passionately fond of his children. Their nurse, Helene Demuth, was a source of infinite help and Iks by Lewis Thomas comfort, and there was always the sure knowledge of the inevitable triumph of the revolutionary cause. For Marx did not share in the sense of depression which fell upon Liberals after the failure of 1848. He shut himself in the British Museum and, sometimes working sixteen hours a day, set himself to the composition of a socialist economics. What Are Externalities! One or two minor pamphlets were written, as the unsparing denunciation of the coup d'etat of 1851, which he called the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) and quotes from and juliet the Critique of Political Economy (1859) which is important in part because it is the groundwork of the Capital itself and in part because of the valuable light it throws upon his own conception of his method. But outside his relations with the international, it was to what, the Capital that these years were devoted.

And they were years of about love from romeo and juliet unremitting and devoted service. He was at what the Museum as it opened and never left until the attendants turned him out. Effects Of Fast! A chosen band of helpers, all fellow-exiles, used to accompany him and aid in the researches he conducted; though it should perhaps be added that they were not admitted as assistants until they had shown their agreement with Marx and passed certain craniological tests. Are Externalities! Phrenology was not typical merely of the Utopian period of Socialism. Marx, moreover, never considered the exchange of conviction for comfort; offers of to Become Essay position came to him, as when Buchar sounded him, possibly on Bismarck's behalf; but he never dreamed of desertion. There is certainly no more remarkable instance of great sacrifice for intellectual discovery than that of which Marx's life is a record. Darwin, it is true, devoted twenty years to the testing of his hypotheses, but he had ample means at his command. Marx was surrounded by difficulties, of which not the least was the knowledge that his self-imposed task condemned his wife and family to profound suffering. Neither he nor they seemed to have flinched from the what, consequences, and one may judge not unfairly that their pride in chaos his work was for Marx his happiest achievement. Of Marx's intellectual environment in London, we know all too little.

Men like John Stuart Mill he never met, though he was on friendly terms with the leading trade unionists as Odger and Applegarth. With the latter, however, he had no intimate political relations, and in the contemporary history of English labour, his name has no large place. Are Externalities! That, perhaps, was natural enough; for English trade unionism was then a system of compromises with which Marx's revolutionary dogmas had little connection. For the most part his affiliations were with Engels and the German exiles in London, though only the former seems to have enjoyed his full confidence. He had, moreover, a close relation-ship with that mysterious figure, half-fanatic and half-knight-errant, David Urquhart, whose loathing of Russia Marx seems fully to have shared. Of The Of Independence! Both of what them saw spies at every street corner, and at effects of fast food one time or another, in what each case without a shadow of justification, Marx was able to convince himself that Herwegh and Bakunin were government emissaries.

It is, of course, sufficiently intelligible that an exile who had himself been the object of police attentions should live in an atmosphere of nervous suspicion; but it is a regrettable corollary of Marx's accusations that both Herwegh and Bakunin belonged to different sections of the Socialist party. Marx never welcomed opposition or rivalry; and he Noms too prone to assume that a doubt of his rightness was a doubt also of his opponent's integrity. Yet it must be counted to his great credit in these years that he is in no small degree responsible for the .svmpathy shown to the North by the working class during the American Civil War. Thomas Essay! It was Marx who advised the union of the labour leaders with Cobden and Bright to are externalities, arouse the enthusiasm of the trade unions; and it was Marx who proposed in the General Council of the International, that a vote of Iks by Essay congratulation be sent to Lincoln, on his re-election as President of the United States. What! Marx played some part also in arousing the trade unions to protest against the brutal suppression by Russia of the Polish revolt of 1863. But, apart from the effects of fast, preparation of Capital , Marx's chief occupation in London was with the early stages of the First International. What! In 1862 a group of Paris workmen paid a visit to the London Exhibition of that year. A trade union committee received them and a joint international Council was founded.

When the Polish rebellion of 1863 broke out, it was this Council which prepared the gigantic protest meetings against Russian barbarity which represented the love romeo and juliet, first intervention, failure though it was, of British labour in what are externalities foreign politics. It was in connection with this campaign that Odger, a member of the Junta, suggested that the needs of the working class involved the holding of regular international meetings. The idea was taken up with enthusiasm and a great meeting was held in London in September, 1864, to organize the movement. Chaos Symbol! Marx, who had held rather aloof from the initial stages was present at the meeting, and joined the Founders' Committee that was created. He perceived at once the significance of the new movement, and though he seems to have had little but contempt for its leaders, he was appointed to draw up the inaugural address. The Committee had given him a basis prepared by the French delegates and accepted by it as adequate. Marx, characteristically enough, destroyed the basis, and produced instead an address of his own detailing the are externalities, progress of the working class in England during the from, past thirty years, and insisting that its meaning must be read in terms only of his own theories. It is, in fact, a new edition of the Communist Manifesto , with the revolutionary period of trade unionism as the basis of its deductions instead of universal history.

The special interest of the address, however, lies in Marx's use of the history of the Factory Acts as a proof of the value of working-class agitation. In the bright sunlight of what day, he said, the bourgeois political economy was here vanquished for Engineer Essay, the first time by the political economy of the working class. What Are Externalities! The Factory Acts were, indeed, revolutionary in the sense that they were a direct admission of the inadequacy of laissez-faire; but their passage was hardly due to the type of influence Marx had in mind. At least in other moods he would not have called Lord Shaftesbury a revolutionary Communist. Marx henceforward devoted much energy to effects, the International, and as he hurried it forth from its cradle, so he may be said to have hastened it towards the grave. Its origin began in dissension--the struggle between the idealist nationalism of Mazzini and the revolutionary and class-conscious aggressiveness of what Marx. On the latter's victory Mazzini withdrew, though with characteristic selflessness he advised his followers to continue their support. Marx henceforth dominated the organization, though he waged a continuous warfare to maintain his supremacy.

To him, the movement was essentially an effort to propagate the ideas of the Communist Manifesto and thus to chaos theory symbol, prepare the way for the revolution. But to what, the English members the International was essentially an I Want a Mechanical Engineer Essay, organ for promoting trade unionism; and when Ogder perceived, in are externalities the Commune of 1871 and Marx's defence of I Want a Mechanical example it, the real drift of its purpose, he resigned from the organization. What! The English section always remained aloof from the directorate; for it was that special brand of Radicalism of which William Lovett was perhaps the finest representative that they were really concerned to foster. Nor was the English section the only difficulty. For the first two years, the followers of Proudhon were not able rivals, and they had no sympathy with Marx's idea of a direct and immediate political revolution.

They were, moreover, hostile to Communism; and chaos theory racial differences played their part. What! Even when the Proudhonians had been defeated, Bakunin and his followers remained. Quotes About Love From! They were anarchists and bitterly opposed to the centralized dictatorship of which Marx was the are externalities, exponent; and there were grave differences between them on the degree to effects of fast, which property was to what are externalities, be confiscated. Bakunin, it must be admitted, was as difficult as Marx himself in I Want Essay colleagueship. He founded a rival organization and did much intriguing against Marx when he was readmitted on its abandonment. By 1872 his influence had so increased that a frontal attack upon are externalities him was impossible. About From Romeo And Juliet! In the what, Hague Congress of Iks by Lewis Thomas that year, Marx therefore proposed the removal of the headquarters to New York.

The motion was carried; but it was obviously impossible to what, direct European Socialism from a position three thousand miles away. By 1875 the International was extinct; and hostile as were the attentions given to it by the Governments of Europe, it rather perished of internal dissension, tile struggle between two powerful and antithetic personalities, than from external attack. Not, however, before it had rendered one great service. The Second Empire perished in the defeat of Sedan, and Essay the provisional government created by Thiers was not merely hostile to a democratic re-organization, but even looked forward to the building of a new monarchy. The working men of Paris had no sympathy with these ideas; and what the Commune was their answer to english, them. The effort lasted only seven weeks, when it was overthrown amid scenes of what unexampled butchery. Marx had been definitely hostile to its inception. Chaos Theory! For him tile essential function of the what are externalities, workers was to strengthen their own organizations and to prepare themselves thereby for of fast, their coming freedom. But when the Communards perished in their heroic folly, and were pursued, as even more modern history has pursued them, by a campaign of virulent and lying attack, Marx came to their defence in what is, the Communist Manifesto apart, the most brilliant pamphlet he ever wrote. The Civil War in France , published as an official statement of the are externalities, International, is, of course, a partial and effects incomplete view of the are externalities, complicated events it narrates; but nothing that has been written since so admirably depicts the ideas and sentiments by which the Communards were inspired, or more energetically displays the Lewis Thomas Essay, savage brutality with which they were treated.

The defence was the more generous when Marx's low opinion of the French Socialist movement is remembered, as also his conviction that Sedan was the just price of Bonapartist imperialism. Yet even in the hour of a victory he welcomed, Marx addressed the what, German workers in a manifesto which demanded a fair and honourable place for the vanquished. Meanwhile, the great labour of his life had been partially completed by the publication, in theory 1867, of the first volume of the Capital . What! It cannot be said to have received the welcome it deserved. Of Fast! Written, of course, as it was in a German particularly cumbrous and involved in what are externalities structure, it was necessarily caviare to the multitude. The Saturday Review perceived the value of the material of which it made use; though not even Professor Beesly's persuasiveness could induce George Henry Lewes to insert a long notice from Engels in the Fortnightly . Russian and French translations soon followed; and in Russia, particularly, the book soon made its way to quotes about love from and juliet, that position of what commanding influence it has never lost. Effects Of Fast! Marx, it must be remembered, was already well-known in Russia. Belinsky had already praised the Franco-German Year Books ; Annenkov had published a long critique from Marx on Proudhon; and his relations with Herzen and Bakunin had made him a notable figure among international Socialists. In Germany the book seems to what, have made its way but slowly; and the second edition (1873) contains a long protest by Marx against what he deemed an organized conspiracy of chaos symbol silence.

It had, of course, presently to undergo the inevitable attack incidental to all learned German controversy--on the ground that its doctrines had been anticipated; and Marx was ludicrously assumed to have stolen his thunder from Rodbertus. But within five years from its publication Capital had become the what are externalities, pivotal part of German Socialist literature, and his name assumed the Iks by Lewis Thomas, position from which ail other socialists might be surveyed. Marx, was not, however, destined to complete it. The long struggle against poverty had left its mark upon his frame, and the last twelve years of his life were an incessant fight against pain and disease. Asthma and inflammation of the lungs left him little chance of continuous world, though typically- enough, he devoted his rest to the study of the Russian language that he might speak the more authoritatively, upon its agriculture, and to such recreations as physiology and advanced mathematics. He wrote, too, in 1875, his Criticisms of the Gotha Programme , which contains, perhaps, the clearest statement of his attitude towards the transition to Socialism. He was able, further, in 1877-8, to do something towards preparing the second volume of Capital for the press. But visits to Karlsbad and Algiers did not improve his shattered health; and he did not lift his head again after the death of his wife on December 2nd, 1881. To her, Marx had intended, as Engels has told us, to dedicate the completed structure of his work. He had no strength for the effort. On March 14th, 1883, he died peacefully, after a slight hemorrhage of the lungs.

His old nurse, Helene, and Engels were present at his death; and three days later he was laid to rest in the cemetery at Highgate. Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht spoke at his graveside; and the former devoted the remaining twelve years of his life to completing the unfinished edifice of his master. Marx would have wished no other wreath upon his tomb. Marx's personality is no easy one to dissect. There is no trace of the rebel in his inheritance; and what are externalities his early education would have fitted him for any career rather than the one he chose. If he became the head and centre of the destructive forces of Europe, that was the inevitable outcome of the reactionary regime into which he was born; and he would doubtless have countered that description by I Want a Mechanical Essay, insisting that destruction is the parent of creativeness. His work dealt with the historic foundations of the permanent source of revolution, and what are externalities the only weapon, as we realized, for flesh that has mortified is the knife. The view that makes of chaos theory him the compeer of Darwin, the discoverer of the universal law of economic evolution, has not a little truth in what it; but it is less true than that which places him alongside of Rousseau and Carlisle, as one of the great prophets of the human race. For it is essentially by the qualities of the prophet that he is distinguished. Essay! He was unmoved by oracles other than his own. Impatient of difference; as with Proudhon and Bakunin, contemptuous, as his correspondence with Engels shows, of all who did not think exactly in his fashion, he never learned the essential art of colleagueship.

He was too prone to regard a hostile view as proof of moral crime. What Are Externalities! He had not a little of of the Of Independence that zest for priority he was so unwilling to recognize in the discoveries of others. What Are Externalities! He was rarely generous in his recognition of intellectual stimulus. With Marx, to love, enter a movement was to dominate it; and he was incapable of talking the second place. Hatred, wrote Mazzini of him, outweighs love in his heart, which is not right even if the what are externalities, hatred may in itself have foundation. There is a penetrating truth in that criticism. Marx's absorption in the wrongs of the disinherited undoubtedly blinded him to tile universality of human nature. He had brooded so long over the method of their redress, that he became incapable of symbol weighing the value of alternative channels. He never realized how partial and incomplete were the views upon which he based his conclusions; and vast and patient as were the researches he undertook, he was not always exact in his measurement of evidence. He is, in what are externalities fact, a noble, but not an attractive figure.

That there was a Marx eminently lovable in himself, the testimony of friends makes certain; but it was not the Marx of public life. There is something unhealthy; in effects of fast food the venom with which he assails early friends like Bruno Bauer, or not less ardent seekers after light like Proudhon. His accusations against Proudhon even when the temptation to destroy is remembered were singularly ungenerous. Are Externalities! Learned, courageous, capable of profound sympathy with the mass of Essay men, he was never able to what are externalities, grasp the quotes about love, secret of dealing with individuals. Much, is to be pardoned to an exile who never enjoyed comfort, and had often risked his personal safety but Mazzini was able to emerge from trials not less difficult with a sweetness unembittered. Nor could Marx accustom himself to the necessary compromises of political life. One is tempted to are externalities, feel that Marx confined his introspection to other men, and never attempted that sober examination of self which is often the beginning of political wisdom. That effort, after all, is fundamental. The unstated assumptions of a thinker's personality are the more urgent because they do not appear in the printed word.

Every great philosophic interpretation is at chaos theory bottom a spiritual autobiography, and Marx never realized how greatly his work is a palimpsest within which one can read the history of his personal experience. It is significant for his books that his early radicalism should have proved a barrier to his university career. It is significant also that he should have known the what are externalities, pains and penalties of exile. Nor is it irrelevant that, after thirty years in London, he was still, at the end, a German stranger testing facts and of fast food constructing theories in terms quite alien from the circumstances around him. The impalpable penumbra of his thought never impressed him, even while it remained the subconscious touchstone by which he judged the thought and what acts of other men. Thus, while he wrote with superb profundity about the material environment of men's lives, he rarely penetrated into the inner substance of those lives. Essay! With such tracts of experience--religion for example--as were alien from his own knowledge he could neither sympathize, nor understand. He wrote a philosophy which expresses in the mass the aspirations of what men; but it is not a philosophy, like that of Rousseau which, with all its defects, springs directly from Iks by their deepest emotions. In a sense, that is to say, the seeming logic of his attitude is deceptive, for it in part rests upon a failure to test his own assumptions, and in part upon what are externalities an abstract vied of about love and juliet human nature with which the totality of facts is in direct contradiction.

Marx's doctrines may be divided into five different parts which, though they are brought into connection in his writings, have in reality no necessary dependence upon each other. Their central economic position is a theory of value, by which he endeavoured to explain the methods by which the what, workers are exploited under capitalism; and as a corollary, a view of the increasing concentration of capital from which he derived important consequences in his prophecy of the future. The Significance Declaration Of Independence Essay! Historically it is an attempt to explain the growth of movements and institutions entirely in economic terms. Predominantly, Marx insists, the antagonism of what are externalities classes is the motive-power which underlies the historic process; and it is to the impulses which are at work in the satisfaction of economic demand that all changes are to be traced. Philosophically, this view results in a purely materialistic view of human nature--a view, be it noted, which has obvious and important connections with the general attitude of the Benthamite school. Politically, the about romeo, doctrines of Marx resolve themselves into a defcnce of revolution as the what are externalities, method by which the workers are to attain to power, and dictatorship as the method by which they so consolidate it as ultimately to secure a condition of general freedom. Upon Marx's theory of value it is not necessary to spend much time. It has not stood the test of criticism; it is out of harmony with the facts, and it is far from social self-consistent. What! It represents essentially a narrow interpretation of some loose sentences of Ricardo.

The latter had argued, with certain qualifications, that the value of any commodity is to be measured by the quantity of labour which goes to its production. Marx, however, ignored the qualifications, and the proof he offered of the thesis is essentially different from that of Ricardo. Exchange value, he argued, is not the singular quality of the commodity in which it inheres. Exchange value is the quality which it possesses alike with all other qualities for which it can be exchanged. Since human labour is the only quality which all commodities possess in common, human labour must be the measure of exchange value. And, be it noted, by human labour is meant undifferentiated human labour, it is Iks by Lewis Thomas a quantitative and not a qualitative equation. It is a measure simply of effort in time and not of effort in result or quality of result.

Labour is paid differently simply in relation to the different amount of what are externalities labour congealed in any given commodity produced. That which will suffice to produce the necessaries of life for the labourer is therefore the price of labour power. engages, as it clearly follows, are the value of the of fast, workers necessaries of life. But the worker produces in a day more than suffices for his necessaries of life. If we assume that by working six hours each day the worker can produce his necessaries, while his working day is eight hours long, then the value of what he produces is as eight hours is to what are externalities, six, is, that is to say, one-third greater. Marx termed this extra-production surplus-value, and food he assumed that the capitalist, taking his surplus as his profit, robbed the worker of it. For by buying labour-power at its market price! the capitalist at once grows rich and exploits his workers. And in any capitalistic society, especially where there is free competition, this is bound to what, be the I Want a Mechanical Essay, case; from which it of course follows that only by the abolition of capitalism can we stop the exploitation of labour. It is unnecessary to dwell at any length upon the fallacies implicit in this analysis. As a matter of are externalities logic, Marx had no right to assume that the quality of labour is, other differences being subtracted, the common basis of Engineer example measurement.

Nor did he mention that in addition to labour, all commodities to have value must have this at least in common, that they satisfy some need. Utility, in other words, is a necessary factor in value; it would be impossible to produce aeroplanes except upon the assumption that some people wanted to fly in are externalities them. Nor can undifferentiated human labour be taken as a measure of value. It is an economic platitude that differences in wages are not merely due to differences in Iks by Lewis the effort in time of production. It costs no less to produce a bad carpenter than a good one, but the quality of a good carpenter's world has a value quite apart from cost as effort; it has the type of value which the economists call a quasi-rent, and this quasi-rent appears in the value-in-exchange of the product. Nor is this all. Wherever there is a type of production the phenomena of which result in rent, the measurement of value is not the mean cost of are externalities production but the marginal cost of production. Quotes About From Romeo And Juliet! Marx failed to note this limitation, with the re tilt that he cannot under stand the nature of rent and was led into obvious contradictions. (3) And he fails also to take any account of the fluctuating character of demand. He seems to have regarded demand as purely static, and falls, as a consequence, into all the difficulties which Bohm-Bawerk and the Austrian school have emphasized. To say, moreover, with Marx that the cost of a labourer is the socially necessary cost, the lowest cost, that is, at which he can be produced, is immediately to bring within purview tests of his hypothesis which he entirely failed to apply.

For if wages represent the cost of necessaries, the existence of a proletariat whose wages are above the bare cost of necessaries clearly invalidates the whole process. hand, in fact, the question of a wages level is an historical problem in which logical considerations do not play the are externalities, whole part. Social conscience, for example, as with the Trade Boards, may insist upon a rate of Iks by Lewis Thomas wages historically above the socially necessary cost, and trade unions may by what, the combined strength they represent, lead to the same result. If a state, even though it be a capitalistic state, chose to adopt a policy of a minimum basis of civilized life, in which a wage-standard was fixed, the iron law of wages, which Marx deduced from his theory of value, would immediately be obsolete. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that in the Marxian analysis whatever does not appear as wages, is always regarded as unearned profit. Of rent and interest this is, perhaps, no unfair account, but it is Iks by outside the evidence of facts to argue that the task of directing business, the work of the entrepreneur, is not to count as labour and does not create value. Even when a suspicion of this impossibility dawned upon Marx, he dismissed the earnings of direction simply as cunning, (4) and argued that all profits contain an element of surplus value which differs from interest, wages and are externalities payment to Thomas Essay, the entrepreneur. But if profits are not a payment for work then it should surely follow that the what, capitalist must take it also; otherwise he is gifted with a quality of moderation with which Marx does not normally endow him. In such a general background, the Marxian theory of value seems clearly untenable not less on theoretic grounds than from an analysis of the facts of business. et it is equally undeniable that Marx's view has obtained the assent of a whole class of society to its truth; and it is, therefore, worth while for a moment to inquire exactly what magic it possesses from which its strengthening hold is derived. That, it may be suggested, is simple enough.

Fr the technical economist, the difference between profits and social rent Noms fundamental. Men like Ricardo and Nassau Senior saw a natural distinction in source of origin which manufacturers like Bright embodied in the legitimate earnings of a hardworking mill-owner, whatever his wealth, and the illegitimate because unearned income of a land-owning duke. They saw it the more clearly when, as in the period of Marx's own maturity, they were struggling to free his business from the environment of a hostile squirearchy. But to the labourer, as Marx clearly saw, such a distinction Noms for practical purposes irrelevant. The world was divided for him into those who lived by wages and those who did not. Those who lived by wages were poor, those who did not live by wages were rich. Assume, as Marx assumed, that the surplus theory of value is true, and what the riches of those who do not live by from romeo, wages are due to the poverty of those who do.

The worker was able to see that he was poor; he saw also that he produced more than he could consume, and that his surplus production was divided among a relatively small class of rich, and often idle, men. A theory such as Marx's inevitably appealed to what, him as the theory, natural explanation of his oppressed condition. He clung to it, not by virtue of are externalities any logical estimation of its theoretic adequacy, but because it summarized the most poignant experience he knew. The Marxian law of wages, moreover, will, from its very nature, win new adherents at every period of commercial depression. At any moment when there is a decline in purpose the effective demand for are externalities, commodities, or when the strength of trade union resistance is at a low ebb, the impact of capitalism upon the wage-earner will closely resemble what Marx insisted is its normal relation; for Iks by Thomas Essay, few business men have imagination enough to realize that there are other ways to the rehabilitation of markets than the reduction of price by means of lower wages. Inevitably, therefore, the worker will move from the what, acceptance of surplus value to Iks by Essay, the philosophy which Marx constructed as its natural environment. The law of the concentration of capital stands upon firmer ground. The greater the degree of complexity involved in the productive process, argues Marx, the what, fewer will be the number of persons controlling its instruments. Everything contributes to the intensification of chaos symbol this process.

New means of communication are established, the problems of which are beyond the what, solution of the small capitalist. Important mechanical inventions are beyond his financial means. A Mechanical Essay Example! Territorial consolidation destroys the local market in which he was once a privileged person. The process, indeed, is neither immediate nor direct. It took the bourgeoisie three centuries to expropriate the artisan and create the proletariat.

But once the process had begun, the development was inexorable. Over production created a new army of reserve workers. The substitution of pasture for arable farming concentrated a large rural population in the towns. The economies of are externalities large scale production forced hitherto independent producers into the ranks of the wage-earners. The capitalistic system moves from a national to an international character; its market becomes the world. About Romeo And Juliet! Its nature involves increasing centralization, until the control of the forces of production reaches a point where its further development in what private hands is impossible.

For alongside the development of accumulation is the increase of the proletariat. The workers cannot any longer endure the misery that is involved in the capitalist regime. They have learned discipline from the training that is necessitated by the mechanism of the process of which they are the victims. The knell of capitalist private property then sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. To the great capitalist there succeeds them state, which is captured by the workers for their own purpose. The result of capitalism is, in fact, its own destruction. It produces, in chaos Hegelian fashion, its own antithesis.

The very condition of its growth is that it should involve the laws which imply its inevitable ruin. We need not accept the what are externalities, conclusion of the of the Declaration Essay, argument to insist on the important truth that it contains. The wastage of competition in large scale enterprise is a commonplace of modern business, and the trust or cartel is the characteristic symptom of industrial development. There are, indeed, certain important limitations to the simplicity of the Marxian view. The growth of joint stock enterprise distributes over what are externalities, a wider circle the number of those interested in social the receipt of profits, even while it limits those who actually control the industrial process itself; while there are many minor industries, of which photography and the repair of motor-cars are examples, in what which the tendency is to the increase of small firms rather than to the development of great ones.

But parallel with this evolution has gone a very striking centralization of credit which concentrates in continuously fewer hands the The Significance of the Of Independence, finances of the community. Agriculture, indeed, despite the large-scale farming of what are externalities Western America, and the development of agrarian co-operation, remains persistently individualist in temper. (5) Yet, on the balance of quotes about love romeo and juliet inquiry it is impossible to deny the emergence of an increasingly collectivist spirit. And its reaction upon industry is the what are externalities, more important because it leads, without question to the demand by the workers of certain nominal standards from the state which are increasingly insisted upon social purpose as the condition of business enterprise. Nor is that all. It becomes obvious that certain industries are, from their very nature, too vital in their results to be left to the chaotic possibilities of private effort. If the are externalities, expropriators are not actually expropriated, there comes, as with mines and railways, a demand for some form of nationalization, and just as the investigations of the 'thirties and 'forties produced the Factory Acts, so it is Iks by Lewis Essay legitimate to argue that the results of inquiries like the Coal Commission of 1919, and the Dockers' Inquiry of 1920, are likely to what are externalities, put a term to the continuance of effects of fast private enterprise.

Capitalism, in fact, prepares monopolies which immediately affect the what, community towards some form of state administration. So regarded, of course, this view does not involve the theory of effects food revolution which Marx regarded as the inevitable corollary of capitalistic concentration. It need not, indeed, involve a transition towards a socialistic state at what are externalities all. All that would seem to The Significance of the Declaration Of Independence, be implied would be the removal of industries essential to the welfare of the community from the danger of exploitation by private interests. The logic of what are externalities a necessary conflict resultant upon the concentration of capital is derived by social purpose, Marx from other sources. It is the corollary of his interpretation of history. That, broadly speaking, may be summarized by saying that all the what, phenomena of history are the result of economic motives. To them are traceable legal and social institutions not less than the religion and philosophy of each age. The system of production is the ultimate factor, in short, by which the mass of human relationships is determined.

Protestantism, Engels wrote, is essentially a bourgeois religion; so too, in a feudal period vie should expect the legislation to reflect not general ideas of a Mechanical Essay example right, but those ideas of what are externalities right which are compatible with the maintenance of feudalism. But ideas change, and in chaos Marx's view, the source of change is to, be discovered in the transformation of one economic system into another. A new external world produces new internal ideas. Let women enter industry in the mass and, as Mr. Bertrand Russell has pointed out, ideas which not even the logic of Plato and Stuart Mill could make obvious, become accepted without question. Two hundred years ago, it was unthinkable that a peer should go into the city; to-day, finance has enmeshed political life within its fold, so that no company prospectus is complete until the peerage is represented there.

No one can doubt the what are externalities, very large measure of truth in about love this outlook. Are Externalities! No one can write the history of English Puritanism, of the purpose english language, struggle for toleration, or of the American Revolution, without making the defence of an economic incentive fundamental to their explanation. But it is equally clear that the are externalities, insistence upon an economic background as the whole exclamation is radically false. Iks By! No economic motive can explain the suicidal nationalism of the Balkans. Are Externalities! The war of 1914 may have been largely due to conflicting commercial imperialisms; but there was also a competition of national ideas which was at no point economic. Historically. too, the part played by religion in the determination of social outlook was, until at least the peace of I Want to Become a Mechanical Engineer Westphalia, as important as that played by material conditions. Luther represents something more than a protest against the financial exactions of Rome. Are Externalities! The impulses of men, in fact, are never referable to any single source., The love of food power, herd-instinct, rivalry, the desire of display, all these are hardly less vital than the acquisitiveness which explains the strength of material environment. Engels, indeed, seems to have realized the narrowness of the orthodox view, for in the later years of are externalities his life he insisted that the dominant part ascribed by Marx to The Significance Declaration Of Independence, the economic motive was due mainly to its neglect by his opponents, and there was not always time, place and opportunity to do justice to the other considerations.

But with Marx the what are externalities, economic motive is not only final, it is final in a particular way. The only durable source of faction, said Madison, is I Want Engineer property, and, for Marx, the emergence of private property in history is the beginning of the are externalities, class struggle. Immediately society can be divided into those who do, and those who do not, possess private property, a power is released which explains the changes of of the Declaration Essay history. What! For the class which possesses property moulds the civilization of I Want that society in the service of its own interests. It controls the government, it makes the laws, it builds the social institutions of the commonwealth in accordance with its own desires. Are Externalities! Slave and free man, master and servant, these have been the eternal antitheses of history. With the effects of fast food, advent of capitalism the struggle is at once simplified, and made more intense. Thenceforward, the final stage of the class-war, the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat, emerges. And just as each social order of the past has secreted within its womb the germ of its successor, as for example, feudalism produced capitalism, so does the latter contain within itself the what, germ of its communist successor. Capitalism, said Marx, produces its own gravedigger.

The conflict, in his view, was an inevitable and social purpose language a bitter one, and it was bound to result in the victory of the proletariat. What! The bourgeoisie, he wrote in the Communist Manifesto , is incapable of continuing in power because it is incapable of social english securing a bare subsistence to its slaves; and the result is a growing sense of revolt in the worker who ultimately, by a revolutionary act, assumes the reins of power. In a large sense, it is obvious that the substance of this interpretation is accurate. The fact of the class struggle, as Marx himself pointed out, is a commonplace of what are externalities historians and economists; and it may be added that to social, deny its importance is to make history unintelligible. Where diary parted company with his predecessors Noms in the deductions he drew from his perception of what its significance.

For whereas with men like Madison and Engineer Essay example Guizot, the fact of what conflict produced a sense of horror at its implications, and a search for a technique that its dangers might be obviated, with Marx the conflict was fundamental and both its method and ultimate outcome were to him alike obvious. Whereas with Madison there is an ever present uncertainty whether a just victory may not suffer betrayal, or a wrong object be pursued, with Marx the process is predetermined and, save for a brief period in 1870, no hesitation seems to Essay, have crossed his mind. The method by which the proletariat was to secure power lies at the very root of what Marx's doctrine; and it has been in our own day, perhaps, the I Want to Become Essay, main source of his influence. The method was revolution, and a dictatorship of iron rigour would consolidate the new system until the period of transition had been effectively bridged. What Are Externalities! Marx did not blind himself to quotes about from, what all this implied. The history of capitalism was the what, history of a relentless defence of each phase of the rights of property. Chaos Symbol! They were maintained by methods at each point unconnected with ethical demands. If the conflict was extreme as in the days of June, 1848, or with the Commune of Paris, the last ounce of misery was wrung from its opponents, that capitalism might be secure. A period of comparative quiescence may produce the concession of social reform, but this is merely deception. Once a really vital point is are externalities touched by the workers' demands, they are met by Essay, armed resistance.

That means, of course, that only by conscious violent intervention can communism be realized. The proletariat must seize a propitious moment for are externalities, the revolution; but until it comes, they must do all in their power to disturb the existing regime. Even if minor successes have beer achieved by the aid of the liberal-minded bourgeoisie from the first hour of victory, the quotes about love from romeo and juliet, workers must level their distrust against their former allies. They must create a working-class organization of their own workers' committees, local workers' councils, to oppose proletarian institutions and their influence to those of the middle-class state. The Communists must arm the proletariat and do all they can to cut down the army of the State as the chief weapon of defence possessed by the bourgeoisie. Where the are externalities, workers are in the militia, they must form within it a secret organization to obtain its control. They must form their own independent, if hidden, military force and acquire arms by every method. Influential democrats to whose word the from and juliet, working class seems to respond, must be discredited. The old social order, in fact, must be attacked at every point.

Communists have two functions only, to prepare for the revolution, and to consolidate it successfully when it has been prepared. They must think of themselves not as realizing an ideal, but only are externalities as setting free the elements of a new society concealed within the womb of the old. The period of consolidation, moreover, must be a period of iron dictatorship. Marx had no illusions about the possibility of Iks by Essay a democratic governance in such an hour. The ideals of freedom were impossible to maintain until the ground so conquered had been made secure. Revolution provokes counter-revolution; and a victorious proletariat must be on its guard against reaction. Revolution, in fact, demands of the revolutionary class that it secure its purpose by every method at its disposal. It has neither time nor opportunity for compassion or remorse. Its business is to terrorize its opponents into acquiescence.

It must disarm antagonism by execution, imprisonment, forced labour, control of the press. For as it cannot allow any effort at the violent overthrow of what it has established, so must it stamp out such criticism as might be the prelude to further attack. Revolution is war, and war is founded upon terror. The methods of capitalism must be used for the extinction of what capitalism. Quotes Love Romeo! For as capitalism has made of life itself the cheapest of commodities, there need be no repining at its sacrifice, and the result, in any case, is worth the what are externalities, cost, since it destroys the possibility of future sale. It would have been a wanton betrayal of trust, said Marx of the Paris Commune, to observe the traditional forms of liberalism. The end, in fact, is too great to be nice about the means employed. Nor can we expect that a peaceful revolution is possible. While Marx had certain doubts of England, on the whole he was certain that a violent struggle was inevitable.

The workers might capture Parliament at the polls; but political power of that kind is in any case a shadow, and from romeo were it used for an assault upon property, it would inevitably provoke an armed resistance. Marx indeed, went further and was openly contemptuous of democracy. It was a bourgeois invention unrelated to the real, and used only to deceive the people. Again and again the proletariat is are externalities betrayed; and throughout Marx's writings there is the assumption that reliance must be placed upon a class-conscious minority. For in his view there is no place in Essay history for the majority principle; the record of States is the clash between determined minorities, contending for the seat of power. To introduce considerations of consent, to wait on what are externalities, in the food, belief that the obvious rightness of what are externalities communist doctrine will ultimately persuade men to its acceptance, is entirely to about and juliet, ignore reality.

The mass of what men will always acquiesce in, or be indifferent to, whatever solutions are afforded. Communists must proceed upon the assumption that nothing matters save the enforcement of their will. Upon the purpose language, end this revolution is to serve, the forms its purpose will adopt, Marx has written but little. Obviously, with justice on his side; for speculation in distant historical futures is the worst form of gambling It was with the destruction of capitalism and what are externalities the period of Declaration Essay transition therefrom that he was mainly concerned. A new productive system was bound to are externalities, involve new institutions which no man could foresee. That the Communist maxim, From each according to his powers, to Lewis, each according to his wants, would become operative was, of course obvious to what are externalities, him; that performance would be measured in terms of Iks by Essay labour-time (a possibly inconsistent hypothesis) he took for granted. But he was always emphatic that the future must settle itself. He insisted that the measure of distribution would be necessarily unequal in what the period of transition. You may, as he saw, destroy by catastrophe, but creation is not an immediate and spontaneous process. So that he nowhere set limits to the duration of this intermediate period. It was necessary to wait until the habits engendered bv a new productive system created a psychology in which the The Significance of the Of Independence, dogma of equality superseded the bourgeois hypothesis of individual rights.

The main thing was the what, destruction of english a regime in which classdistinction made possible the servitude of the many. It was possible to have confidence in an order in what are externalities which the whole force of social effort was deliberately placed at the disposal of the common welfare. A generation which has seen this doctrine supported by machine-guns and I Want a Mechanical Engineer bayonets is unlikely to what are externalities, belittle its importance. Nor can it be denied that not a little of social evolution has taken the course Marx predicted. Anyone who reads the history of the industrial struggle in Colorado or West Virginia will find it difficult to discover a limit of unreason which capitalism is not willing consistently to overpass. The treatment of communists in Hungary and Finland has exactly the characteristics he foretold. An isolated community like the miners of South Wales becomes, naturally communist in the background of incompetence and ill-treatment from their employers.

And representative government, at least in its classical form, seems unlikely to justify the high hopes of its Benthamite exponents. Every country in the world that has experimented with universal suffrage has experienced a sense of disillusion. It is even commonplace to argue that reason has little place in political struggle, and to pin faith to an irrational impulse which seeks no more than the satisfaction of individual desire. If there has been an improvement in the general standard of civilization, an increasing unwillingness, for example, to inflict unnecessary pain, there are no signs of the mitigation of the class-conflict. On the contrary, the effects of fast, events of the last decade point directly to its exacerbation; and we have obviously entered upon a period in which the are externalities, rights of Essay example property are challenged at their foundation. Certainly it is what are externalities unquestionable that the of the Declaration Of Independence Essay, purchase-price of capitalist survival is the are externalities, offer of concessions which a generation ago would have seemed not less unnecessary than unthinkable. Yet the approximation of the general atmosphere to the condition Marx had in view hardly justifies the principles upon which he placed his reliance. Social English! To begin with, the preparation for revolution is a qualitatively different problem from what it was in the days of the Paris barricades. What Are Externalities! It is possible in a mood of defeat for a civilian population to The Significance of the Declaration Essay, destroy a regime which the army and navy no longer uphold, and, as was demonstrated long ago by Cromwell, a military force which is dissatisfied with its civilian superiors can without difficulty become their master. But for a party of men in what are externalities the position of communists in the modern State, the situation is very different. Unless they are the majority and, consequently, the government, the hostility of the army and navy is certain.

Nor can they obtain, on chaos theory symbol, any large scale, the what, necessary equipment for insurrection. They would have to obtain control of the national arsenals; and that would mean the dispersion of forces in any case small by hypothesis. They would have to meet in the people at large at Iks by Thomas least a mood of acquiescence. They would have to guarantee a supply of food, which, in any but a dominantly agricultural society, would be practically impossible if international credit was seriously impaired by the revolution. Even if we regard a general strike as tantamount, in the conditions of modern industry, to a revolution the difficulties are overwhelming. A general strike might well succeed as a protest against war, for its penumbra might, in the future, arouse emotions of determination that would be irresistible. Are Externalities! But upon any less dramatic issue, it seems tolerably certain that once again, the army and navy must be in the control of the strikers if success is to be assured. For a modern army can supply all services connected with transportation; it can secure the distribution of food, and the problem of effects of fast food fuel is becoming less and less a matter of mining coal. The Marxian view of a secretly armed minority assuming power at what are externalities a single stroke is unthinkable in the modern state.

It would have to imply either the existence of a government so weak that it had practically ceased to be a government at all, or, what perhaps, an The Significance of the Essay, equivalent, a population actively sympathetic to the revolutionary minority. The resources of publicity in modern civilization make impossible the private preparation of the gigantic effort assumed by the Marxian hypothesis. But this is are externalities only the beginning of the difficulty. Marx assumed throughout his analysis a system of love from compact states the life of which was mainly determined by economic considerations, and each relatively independent of its neighbours. Each of these assumptions is only partially true of the modern world.

A State like England, which is wholly dependent on foreign trade, could not undergo a successful revolution except upon the assumption that her neighbours viewed its results with benevolence. Such an what, attitude on the part, for instance, of America is very unlikely, and the rupture of Anglo-American Trade would be fatal to any revolution in this country. For is that all. It is quite clear that the Iks by Lewis Essay, division a revolution would imply must, in its workings, be very partially determined by economic considerations. In a country like America, for example, there would be at least three other factors of vital importance. An American communist revolution would have to cope with problems of distance which would probably render it abortive at what a very early stage. It would not, as in France, be a matter of the immense impact of the capital on the life of the nation; Washington is relatively insignificant in the perspective of America. To control the of fast, whole continent would involve controlling the most complicated railway system in what the world. And even if that difficulty could be surmounted, a complex of nationalist differences would have to be assuaged.

German, French, English, Irish, Polish, these have their special characteristics which the American capitalist has been able to exploit to their common disadvantage; it is difficult to see how an appeal to a communist minority of each would result in the transcendence of these differences. Even then, the religious problem remains; and the hold of the churches upon the mind, particularly, of the Latin peoples would not be easy to loosen. For Marx, insisting only upon the economic motive, it is easy to ignore these difficulties, but it is far too narrow an outlook not to realize at the outset that appeal can be made to other incentives every whit as strong. And even if it were argued that Marx could in our own time assume that the day of such prejudice as nationality and religion engender is love romeo passing (which is doubtful), and that the barriers built by economic difference are now alone important, his conclusions would not follow. For in a period of universal suffrage, it ought then to be possible to capture the seat of power at the polls, and throw upon the capitalist the onus of revolting against a socialist democracy. There are, however, other approaches to the problem which Marx did not adequately consider.

There is, in the first place, the general result upon society of the what are externalities, practice of violence, particularly when the destructive nature of symbol modern warfare is borne in mind; and, in the second, there is the special psychological result upon the agents of the are externalities, opposing forces in of fast food such a regime. Marx did not consider these possibilities, in part because he judged that, in any case, the conflict was inevitable, and also because he was convinced that whatever sacrifices had to be made would be ultimately justified by are externalities, the result. Such an chaos, attitude is, of course, simply an are externalities, instance of his general failure to weigh sufficiently the substance of a political psychology. In part, also, it is the Lewis Essay, corollary of a determinism which the are externalities, facts in issue at no point justify. For it is obvious that if revolution, with its attendant violence, is justified for any cause in which you happen to believe profoundly, no modern state can hope for either security and order. The war has shown clearly that the impulses of savagery which are checked by peace are, when loosed, utterly destructive of the foundations of a decent existence. Of The! If life became an organized and continuous jacquerie, civilization could quite easily be reduced to what are externalities, the state where, as in Mr. Wells's imaginary but far from impossible picture, some aged survivor may tell of an organized Europe as a legend which his grandchildren cannot hope to understand. Violence, on the grand scale, in fact, so far from proving an avenue to communism, would be the one kind of existence in which the impulses demanded by a communist state had no hope of to Become a Mechanical Essay emergence. What Are Externalities! For the condition of communism is the restraint of exactly those appetites which violence releases; and Marx has nowhere indicated how this difficulty could be met. Even beyond this issue, a further point must be raised.

Marx has assumed the seizure of power, and a period of rigorous control until the social purpose english, people are prepared for communism. But he has not shown what approximate length that period is to be, nor what certainty we have that those who act as controllers of the what, dictatorship will be willing to surrender their power at the proper time. It is a commonplace of history that power is poisonous to those who exercise it; there is no reason to assume that the Marxian dictator will in this respect be different from other men. And, ex hypothesi, it will be more difficult to Declaration Of Independence Essay, defeat his malevolence since his regime will have excluded the are externalities, possibility of opposition. No group of men who exercise the powers of a despot can ever retain the habit of democratic responsibility. Purpose Language! That is are externalities obvious, for instance, in the case of men like Sir Henry Maine and Fitzjames Stephen, who, having learned in India the habit of autocratic government, become impatient on their return to England of the slow process of persuasion which democracy implies. To sit continuously in the seat of of the Declaration Of Independence Essay office is inevitably to become separated from the mind and wants of those over whom you govern. For the governing class acquires an what are externalities, interest of food its own, a desire for permanence, a wish, perhaps, to retain the dignity and importance which belong to their function; and they will make an effort to secure them.

That, after all, is only to insist that every system of government' breeds a system of habits; and to argue as a corollary, therefrom that the Marxian dictatorship would breed habits fatal to the emergence of the what are externalities, regime Marx had ultimately in effects food view. The special vice of every historic system of government has been its inevitable tendency to identify its own private good with the public welfare. To suggest that communists might do the same is no more than to are externalities, postulate their humanity. And it may be added that if they surrendered power at a reasonable time, the grounds for so doing, being obviously in their nature non-economic, would thereby vitiate the of the Declaration Of Independence Essay, truth of the materialistic interpretation of history. All this, it is worth noting, is to omit from consideration the are externalities, ethical problems that are involved.

It is obvious, for Lewis, example, that it involves the what are externalities, complete erosion of the whole historic process. But the erosion of responsibility in Declaration Of Independence Essay the governing class is the destruction of personality in their subjects. In such a regime notions of liberty and equality are out of place. Yet it is obvious that the two main defects of capitalism are its failure to produce liberty and equality for are externalities, the mass of humble men and women. Marx, that is to say, contemplated a condition which reproduces exactly the chief vices of capitalism without offering any solid proof of their ultimate extinction. For, after all, the of fast food, chief effort that is worth making is towards a civilization in which what Mr.

Graham Wallas has termed, the capacity of continuous initiative, is implied in the fact of citizenship. It is clear enough that the possibility upon are externalities which the existence of that capacity turns is a wide distribution of power. A man whose thought and acts are at the disposal of other men is deprived of his personality, and that deprivation is implied in the rigorous centralization to which Marx looked forward. Declaration Of Independence Essay! Unquestionably, he was right in his insistence that the are externalities, distribution of economic power in a capitalist state makes the enjoyment of such personality impossible to purpose english, most; but it does not seem any more likely to emerge in the successor to it that he contemplated. We may go further and argue that it is are externalities impossible in any state where the main purpose of, and motive to, effort, is the increase of material wealth.

No society can realize itself in any full sense of the word until the romeo and juliet, mainspring of its existence is a capacity to value things of the mind as more precious than material commodities. That involves a sociology in which the economic motive which Marx emphasized is appraised at a low level. Obviously, to achieve the condition in which that appraisal is possible, involves an are externalities, educational system far different, both in scope and purpose, from a Mechanical Essay example what we now have. It involves a complete transformation of values, in which things like the wider appreciation of art, the study of science and philosophy. the release, in short, of the are externalities, creative energies of men from their present bondage, are regarded as the main and immediate effort of political organization. Yet, if historic experience is to count for anything-- and Marx's philosophy is nothing if not the I Want to Become a Mechanical, interpretation of historical experience--it is exactly this transformation of values which cannot take place in the development Marx had in view. The barbarian invasions of what are externalities Rome did not produce a great art and a great culture, they produced the dark ages. The Thirty Years' War impeded constructive effort in Germany until the threshold of the nineteenth century.

Nor has our own experience been different. The idealism of effects of fast food 1914 has perished before the greater strength of the purely destructive forces released in the struggle. What we have realized is how tenuous and fragile are the bonds of civilization, how little likely they are to be reinforced by what, any effort save that of peace. In such a background, the conflict that Marx envisaged looms before us as the quotes about from romeo, harbinger of precisely those evils from which we are seeking release. It emphasizes in men the impulses against which civilization is a protest.

That wrong can be wiped out with wrong, that we are to regard ourselves as the victims of blind and impersonal forces against what, which it is useless to strive, that the possessive impulses of men cannot be transcended by creative effort--these and things like these are a gospel of impossible despair. In that aspect, surely, the english language, older socialists were right who made the basis of their creed a doctrine of right and fraternity and justice. For right and fraternity and what are externalities justice imply love as their foundation; they do not spring, even at the last vain striving from a doctrine founded upon hate. The real power and influence of Marx lie in a direction essentially different from what is generally assumed. He was the first thinker to expose in all its hollowness the moral inadequacy of a commercial civilization.: He showed that in any society where the main effort is the attainment of wealth, the qualities that are basically noble cannot acquire their full vigour. He did, in fact, for the economic relationships of peoples what Grotius did for their international relationships. He founded both a science and an ideal. For he made finally impossible any economic system which makes the volume of trade the test of national well-being; and he put in the forefront of social discussion the ultimate question of the condition of the people. And he performed the incalculable service to his generation of bringing to it a message of hope in The Significance Declaration Of Independence an epoch where men seemed to themselves to have become the hapless victims of a misery from which there was no release. In every country of the world where men have set themselves to the task of social improvement, Marx has been always the source of inspiration and are externalities prophecy.

His weaknesses, of course, are obvious and important. He diagnoses a disease admirably, says Mr. Wells, in an excellent phrase, and then suggests rather an of fast, incantation than a remedy. Yet the diagnosis is an are externalities, essential part of the cure. Effects! No one can read unmoved the picture he drew of the results of the Industrial Revolution. Massive in its outline, convincing in its detail, it was an indictment such as neither Carlyle nor Ruskin had power or strength to what are externalities, draw. It is chaos theory symbol relatively unimportant that his explanations of the phenomena he depicted have not stood the test of what are externalities criticism. What is vital in the whole was his perception that a society dominated by business men and quotes love romeo and juliet organized for the prosperity of business men had become intolerable. Hardly less splendid was his insistence that no social order is adequate in which the collective energies of men are not devoted to their common life. It does not matter that such perception had been given to others, that such insistence was not new. No thinker of the nineteenth century drove home the lesson with force so irresistible or with urgency so profound.

Even his advocacy of catastrophic revolution has this much of truth in it, that a point is reached in the development of any social system where men will refuse to accept any longer a burden they find too great to bear; and, in that moment, if they cannot mitigate, they will become determined to destroy. The condition, in fact, upon which a state may hope to endure is its capacity for making freedom in each generation more widespread and more intense. Where Marx was wrong was in his belief that the catastrophe was, in itself, worthy of attainment and in his emphasis upon its ultimate benefit. But where he was, also, irresistibly right was in his prophecy that the civilization of his epoch was built upon sand. And even the faults of are externalities his prophecy may be pardoned to an agitator in exile to of the Of Independence Essay, whom the cause of the oppressed was dearer than his own welfare. At bottom, the main passion by which he was moved was the passion for justice. He may have hated too strongly, he was jealous, and he was proud. Are Externalities! But the mainspring of his life was the love and juliet, desire to take from the shoulders of the are externalities, people the social purpose language, burden by which it was oppressed.

He realized that what, in all varieties of time and place, has caused the downfall of a governing class, has never been some accidental or superficial event. The real cause of revolution is the unworthiness of those who controlled the destinies of a people. Indifference to what, suffering, selfishness, lack of moral elevation, it was for those defects that he indicted the effects, class from which he sprang. He transformed the fears of the workers into hopes, he translated their effort from interest in political mechanisms to interest in social foundations. Are Externalities! He did not trust in the working of laws, he sought always for the spirit that lay behind the order of which they were the expression. He was often wrong, he was rarely generous, he was always bitter; yet when the roll of those to whom the emancipation of the people is due comes to effects, be called, few will have a more honourable, and none a more eminent place. 1. See A. Berthod, Proudhon et la Propriété ; C. What Are Externalities! Bougle, La Sociologic de Proudhon; G. Pirou, Proudhon et Syndicalisme Révolutionnaire ; les Amis de Proudhon, Proudhon et Ses Temps . 2. But Considerant, though his picture of the economic situation is purpose english language like that of Marx, rejects revolutionary communism.

3. See Das Kapital , vol. III, pp. 80-1, and 102, for an example of two quite different theories of rent within a dozen pages. 4. Vol. III (German edition) Part 1, p. 343 ff. 5. Cf.

Herman Levy, Large and small holdings (1911).

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How Does a New York Private School Girl Become a Dominatrix? What Does It Take To Be a Dominatrix? This story is adapted from Katie Roiphe’s new book of essays, In Praise of Messy Lives. Photograph by what are externalities, Andrew Brucker. When you start, the dominatrix says, it feels like being thrown into social a deep ocean when you don’t know how to swim.

You are coughing up water, choking, feeling like you are drowning. Her first week at the dungeon Alexis Lass Trbojevic was overwhelmed by what she saw. What she saw was subs being whipped and caned, subs with bloody welts, subs walking on all fours on are externalities, leashes, subs getting slapped in the face and spat on, subs licking the bottoms of chaos theory, women’s shoes, subs left bound in cages for six or eight hours. She had to remind herself of a line from what are externalities, The Night of the Iguana , “Nothing human disgusts me ” She thought of her mother saying that you become brave by acting brave. Though she also thought of other things her mother would say about what she was doing.

In the romeo and juliet beginning it was very hard to get the voice of her Upper East Side upbringing out of her head, to separate the flock of preppie Spence girls in their green plaid uniforms, the blocks of doorman buildings and tulip lined avenues, from the the amorphous entity she was beginning to think of as her self. Those first days in the dungeon, wearing latex, whip in her hands, she hears a voice call her trashy, a whore, a loser, but she doesn’t know if it’s her voice. Then somewhere she crosses over. What? The world she has moved into social purpose english language is so extreme, so profoundly and flamboyantly unacceptable that it frees her from the narrow or confining definitions of a successful life; it’s not like failing a little, or not fitting in a little. It’s like going to Mars. The abstractions here are easier to what understand than the specifics. By that I mean that if you watch 30 seconds of Lewis, one of the fetish films Alexis makes, in which a woman steps in stiletto heels on a man’s genitals, you will not see Alexis’ world as clearly as if you read Susan Sontag’s essay on sadomasochism and what are externalities fascism: “The color is black, the material is leather, the justification is truth, the aim is ecstasy, the fantasy is death.” When Alexis first told her mother what she was doing her mother said, “Don’t come in the house.” Alexis' mother was the closest person in the world to her. Alexis said, “Fine i f that’s what you want.” In the quotes from romeo and juliet end her mother let her back into the house.

But the break is still there, not visible, but there, the break where you find in yourself the ability to walk away from everything you have known; the are externalities break is thrilling, liberating and, as Alexis says, a little like dying. Alexis describes her mother as a dark, remote, beautiful creature, drinking coffee, smoking long cigarettes reading her books by Iks by Thomas, dead Russians. “She would probably be the best domme in the world,” Alexis says. One of the tricky financial issues that Alexis runs into what with her fetish film business is The Significance Declaration Of Independence Essay that she can’t resist spending money on are externalities, the aesthetics: She wants a real goat skull for the Viking shoot, or an antique morgue table from the thirties, or the perfect cigarette holder for a film noirish shoot, or an The Significance of the Essay art deco chaise longue, or a Caroline Herrera vintage Roman gown. It could be her weakness as a businesswoman that Alexis cares about how her films look more than she cares about cheaply and efficiently delivering the fetish. What Are Externalities? In fact it seems like her heart is most unambiguously in painting the sets, in the installation, in I Want to Become Engineer example the design, in the construction work, in the hunt for costumes and props, in what are externalities the composition, in the look.

Alexis often explains her attraction to sadomasochism in general as aesthetic. The Significance Essay? “There is something beautiful about the what are externalities sound of I Want Engineer example, a whip in the dark,” she tells me when she is describing her first days in the dungeon. For her there is are externalities also something beautiful in the inversion of regular life: the way the quotes romeo men are on their knees, small, bent over, and what are externalities the women are taller. I begin to notice that Alexis uses the of fast food word “aesthetically” when she wants to distance herself from other things that are happening. On the other hand she is truly interested in the aesthetics of what are externalities, sadomasochism, and I can’t think of a time where I have seen her where she doesn’t have paint under her fingernails. Of course I want to know why Alexis is drawn into the Scene. This will not be a question that she answers easily, though she is generous enough to try. In fact she has already told me that this is the chaos symbol very question the Scene is designed to what obscure; it is a Mechanical Essay example behind stage, off limits, hidden in are externalities some box with chains. “I know no one goes through this world untouched,” she says. “But I needed to be touched more.” One day when she was still trying to social purpose be an actress a man came up to her on the street and what told her she should be a dominatrix. He had seen some mannish edge, some unusual confidence in her walk.

In this version of events, the Scene has chosen her. But Alexis has other versions, like the one where she is an aspiring actress, an theory symbol artist, a smart, dyslexic girl from the Upper East Side without obvious office skills in an expensive and demanding city, and she accidentally stumbles on an easy way to make a living. But why this particular easy way to what make a living? Or maybe a better question is why is this particular way to make a living easy for her? Alexis says that she has “anger issues,” but she is not sure where they come from. One day she tells me about a boyfriend she had who was an editor at the New York Times . She was drinking then, and one night at symbol, Elaine’s, for reasons that are obscure to her, she punched him. Warning: The following photos are not safe for work. The captions in this slideshow were taken from Katie Roiphe’s essay, “What Does It Take To Be a Dominatrix?” The captions in quotation marks are direct quotes from what, dominatrix Alexis Lass Trbojevic.

In the beginning, it was hard to get the voice of her Upper East Side upbringing out of her head. There is something beautiful about the sound of a whip in the dark. She began to order wild animals over the Internet. Nothing human disgusts me. I learned to fight from the cats. Alexis says she has anger issues. I needed to be touched more. The break is symbol thrilling, liberating, and a little like dying. Recently she was angry at her current boyfriend for what, not doing something that he said he would do. There was a whip in front of her, and of the Of Independence Essay sort of instinctually she reached for it.

He started running. She says, “What could he do? A big, strong man can’t grab a whip. What Are Externalities? That’s what so fascinating; you can decapitate someone with a whip.” She laughs as she tells this story. “Of course I was like, I am sorry I am sorry I am sorry! It’s bad.

It’s like I don’t know how else to act.” Some of to Become, her anger she attributes to the frustrations of being a wild, imaginative child trying to fit in at Spence, a rigid, highly structured Upper East Side girls’ school, where she learned, among other things, to curtsey. There, from a very early age, she would come up with elaborate lies to cover up for what, her dyslexia, to try to obscure the reasons she couldn’t read aloud or fast enough or well enough. She remembers one day in Essay art class they were making clay figures. Alexis made hers with breasts, and the other girls thought she was strange.

When Alexis was growing up there were no other children in the house but there were cats. When she was 3 or 4, she remembers going to what the birthday party of a classmate, who was a maharajah’s grandson. His face was covered in scratches because she had scratched him. “I didn’t have siblings,” she explains. “I learned to fight from the Declaration Of Independence cats.” Once, right out of college, Alexis had a very brief marriage. What Are Externalities? She knew it was over love romeo and juliet because she began to what order wild animals over of fast the Internet. For a while she had one wolf and one half-wolf running around her apartment on the waterfront in are externalities Brooklyn.

When I ask her what separates her from the of fast girls in her films, the what are externalities other dommes and adult actresses she hires, who are not as compelling to watch, she says, “I hit harder.” Sessions are exhausting because you are managing someone else’s fantasy. Alexis describes it as “walking on eggshells upon eggshells.” She watches her subs very closely, for a glance averted, a flicker of an eyelid, tension in shoulders, for the slightest alterations in body posture, for signs that she is going too far or not far enough or in the wrong direction. She is Iks by Lewis Essay intuiting the fantasy from them, almost drawing it out of what, their bodies, and she has to be fluid, shifting, perfectly responsive. These guys, she says, are about to blow. What is striking in english language her description is that it is the slaves who sound dangerous. The way she talks about what, it, it is like there is an explosion that she is working around, managing, navigating, negotiating. She compares it to quotes love being with mental patients on a ward without guards. Alexis describes the sadomasochistic drama as being organized around the idea of not facing what there is to face; the are externalities whole structure of the fetish replaces any kind of rigorous introspection. She says, “It’s like these guys walk in The Significance Declaration Of Independence and need surgery, and we are giving them a massage. “Is it acting?

Well, yeah. But to be good at a role, it has to be you. And this one comes very naturally to me.” She says, “It’s a way to get out my anger, and I don’t feel bad for them because I have this 6-foot-tall man standing in front of me, and I am like poor you. Poor fucking you. I mean they could get up at any moment and punch me in the face. Game over.”

I wonder if with her particular array of skills and talents, she is ever tempted to find a rich sub who would buy her an apartment. But for what, some reason this fantasy doesn’t work for Alexis. Even the chaos idea of a rich boyfriend who buys her presents somehow ruffles her, and when in a former life she did have rich boyfriends buy her presents, she didn’t want them, thinking “What am I, your doll?” For her being dependent on a man is as repellent and unthinkable as what she does would seem to many of the stay-at-home moms sipping $11 lattes at D’Ambrosios on Madison Avenue. I ask Alexis how she would reply to an imaginary feminist who argues that she is degrading herself to fulfill male fantasies for money, that she is being exploited, in her latex dishabille, for oppressive patriarchal fantasies. This is not how she thinks about the power relations in are externalities what she does, and she thinks about them a lot. Being dependent on one man’s fantasies or whims is different from being dependent on of the, various fairly interchangeable and what shifting subs’ payments for services rendered. She also points out The Significance of the Declaration Of Independence Essay that the payments are called “tributes.” She sees that money as equalizing the situation, undoing the humiliation a little, delivering back to these men their ego after they have been totally broken down; in some way the tribute or payment restores these bent over, shirtless, beaten men back to what the often exalted place they have in the outside world. Alexis’ dungeon slash studio floats above an anonymous, midtown street; the dungeon is purpose english very clean and are externalities well lit and tastefully furnished for english, a dungeon.

Somehow it feels like early morning here, even though it is 2 in what are externalities the afternoon. There is a skinny gray cat wandering past the theory symbol giant wooden cross, and a fluffy black one curled up on the ’30s morgue table, and are externalities one curled up asleep on the low mattress that is quotes from romeo there for late nights. Alexis is tired from staying up until 2 shooting photographs of what, a Viking girl covered in silver body paint with a goat skull. We are talking about Story of O , a famous French novel from the and juliet ’50s about sadomasochism. I am somehow simultaneously bored and disturbed by the extremes of how O. is transfigured, how she vacates herself in the course of her baroque sexual enslavement. When Susan Sontag writes about O. she talks about “the voluptuous yearning toward the extinction of one’s consciousness.” I mention the are externalities scene where O. is branded, and Alexis says that she once took part in a branding.

She was with another domme who had a sub who was a math teacher from Ohio and wanted to I Want a Mechanical Engineer Essay be branded. They somehow found a branding iron that said “m.” It was just what they happened to find, but they thought maybe “m” could stand for what, “mistress.” Alexis thought that she could hold the of the blowtorch because she had done welding before. She was nervous, and the slave was nervous, but she held it steady, the what are externalities flame blue and about and juliet red. She stood in a leather bikini and stilettos, holding it very still, while the are externalities other domme took the branding iron and put it on his skin. After it was over the dominatrixes started laughing, not a mean laugh, she explains, but nervous, relieved, scared. They had never done anything like that before. Alexis said to the other domme, “Are you just going to leave him like that?” And the other domme got some Neosporin, and The Significance of the a bandage. But now she thinks the what branding was going too far; she would never do anything like that anymore. I think of effects of fast food, other people I know with what Alexis calls “anger issues,” the way it seeps into what and poisons the lives of those around them, in socially acceptable ways, in ways not visible to the outside world, how things happen, minor dramas in the kitchen, books or other objects thrown or torn into pieces, fetishes unnamed and effects unwanted but still playing themselves out, accidental rituals of humiliation, humdrum or otherwise, little, banal stories of O. on the subway ride to work, the boring everyday way people “voluptuously yearn toward the extinction of their consciousness,” or not even that voluptuously. The Viking girl already sent Alexis a text this morning saying she is having second thoughts about the topless photos with silver body paint because her fundamentalist Christian family in Texas might see them.

Alexis is more or less taking the what are externalities position that body paint is clothes. Somewhere in from romeo and juliet the middle of this Alexis is telling me about what, a dinner party she went to with her parents on quotes, the Upper East Side, at what are externalities, the house of an important judge. They are sitting around the table, the effects judge, his wife, his son who goes to what are externalities an all boys’ school, his 85-year-old mother with dyed red hair, Alexis and her family, and purpose english language a couple of other Upper East Side friends, eating a pork roast from Lobel’s, with horseradish sauce. They are talking about things they regret not doing. Someone turns politely to the the important judge’s 85-year old mother and what asks her what she regrets not doing. She says, “I wish I’d been a stripper.”

In the dungeon, the window to the fire escape is criss-crossed with bars. Alexis takes another sip of her orange soda and lights a menthol cigarette. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. All contents 2017 The Slate Group LLC. All rights reserved.