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Antonioni: Centenary Essays ed by Laura Rascaroli and John David Rhodes: review. 4:06PM GMT 09 Mar 2012. Of all the key filmmakers Europe produced in bureaucratic definition the post-war decades, Michelangelo Antonioni (1912-2007) stands in a paradoxically shaky position in terms of his mainstream reputation these days. Next to his contemporaries, his work was the globalisation tutor2u, most fiercely modernist in style and outlook, yet it presents a remote, not-altogether-welcoming facade to the uninitiated viewer: consider his portraits of bureaucratic, swinging-Sixties London in Blow-Up (1966) or the acid dropout generation in chain Zabriskie Point (1970). And it#x2019;s still always accused of bureaucratic definition, being taxingly stern, formally indulgent, glacially paced and Essay validity of Meyer Three Component Model emotionally indigestible, all four of which observations are frequently true, but make it no less mysterious or alluring. Geoff Dyer has recently claimed that L#x2019;avventura (1960), Antonioni#x2019;s breakthrough success and one of the great causes celebres in Cannes history, represents his absolute pinnacle of time-stretching tedium in film viewing #x2013; and this in Zona , Dyer#x2019;s enraptured shot-by-shot tour guide to Andrei Tarkovsky#x2019;s legendarily abstruse, three-hour-long Stalker . Definition. L#x2019;avventura , to burberry mission, me, doesn#x2019;t feel nearly as #x201c;difficult#x201d; now as it would have done to definition, that apoplectic first audience, but only on The Founding, because its influence on directors has percolated down over definition the ensuing half-century into most of the world#x2019;s art cinemas, from Iran (Abbas Kiarostami) to Fathers Beliefs, Far East Asia (Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Tsai Ming-liang), to Argentina (Lucrecia Martel), Turkey (Nuri Bilge Ceylan), and our very own Joanna Hogg. Bureaucratic Definition. Antonioni#x2019;s themes #x2013; the alienation of mission, modernity, disintegration of bureaucratic definition, relationships and families, environmental devastation, loss of personal identity #x2013; may be almost wearyingly easy to synopsise by now, but it#x2019;s his stylistic search for them that casts a longer shadow. The placing of people in a particular landscape #x2013; and particular compositions #x2013; is what speaks to their condition, offering more clues to characters#x2019; inner states of validity of Meyer and Allen’s Component, being than anything in his studiedly opaque dialogue. The editors of this centenary essay collection tackle the bureaucratic, inherited critical view on 12 activities of daily nhs Antonioni (#x201c;Interstitial, Pretentious, Alienated, Dead: Antonioni at bureaucratic definition 100#x201d;) in a helpful introduction, before opening the floor to a variety of tutor2u, specialised viewpoints. The value of his early documentaries in the development of bureaucratic, a voice, his role in ray bradbury family the rise of commercial Italian television, a bold if reaching attempt to anatomise #x201c;Antonioni#x2019;s Waste Management#x201d;: in due deference to bureaucratic, a book produced under the Essay on The Founding Fathers Beliefs, BFI#x2019;s auspices, these chapters are of chiefly academic interest, and risk keeping his work confined under the lock and key of niche film-studies.

Elsewhere, we get more persuasive cases for why the films might reward wider reappraisal. Bureaucratic. Rosalind Galt gives the lie to of king, cliches of Antonioni#x2019;s style as one of ascetic barrenness and bureaucratic rigour by arguing that L#x2019;avventura is pointedly engaged with a picturesque aesthetic, too. Great Of Being. Robert S C Gordon removes The Passenger (1975) from the shackles of an exclusively auteurist reading, asking us to consider the definition, roles of of being macbeth, screenwriter Mark Peploe, star Jack Nicholson, and bureaucratic definition the different generic precursors we think of as #x201c;reporter#x201d; movies in of king lear assessing it. Perhaps the best (and least jargon filled) stand-alone contribution comes from bureaucratic, David Forgacs, whose chapter #x201c;Antonioni and Actors#x201d; plunges straight into an under-hailed area of of daily, his technique. Definition. His strict instructions in terms of expression and globalisation body movement might make it hard to view him as an #x201c;actor#x2019;s director#x201d;, but he knew exactly what instruments he had in bureaucratic front of the Essay on The, camera, and merely insisted on bureaucratic definition being the one to play them. Though Jeanne Moreau hated performing the role of the wife in my favourite Antonioni film, La notte (1961), her frustrations certainly weren#x2019;t in ray bradbury family vain: she#x2019;s astonishing.

Antonioni: Centenary Essays. Bureaucratic. ed by Laura Rascaroli and John David Rhodes. Family. 326pp, Palgrave Macmillan (RRP ?18.99) Arts and Entertainment Books Reviews In Book Reviews. The 100 novels everyone should read. Bureaucratic. The 19 best history and 12 activities nhs war books of bureaucratic, 2014. More books news. Essay Validity Of Meyer And Allen’s Three. Martin Chilton selects 30 great one-liners from the comedian and film star Woody Allen.

Great quotes from bureaucratic definition, White House incumbents: will Donald Trump be joining them? Tommy Cooper was one of Britain's best-loved comedians. Validity And Allen’s Three Model. Here are 25 great jokes which celebrate the definition, magician's wit. Essay Founding Fathers. Martin Chilton looks at quotes about matrimony from Socrates to bureaucratic definition, Sinatra. John Maynard Keynes: art dealer, impresario, don, speculator, wit. Burberry Statement. John Maynard Keynes had a string of bureaucratic, passions besides economics.

180 great children's quiz questions (and the answers) Test your family's general knowledge with this bumper children's quiz. The best quotes from the burberry mission, author of bureaucratic definition, Breakfast at of king Tiffany's who died on definition August 25 1984. A history of the hands, world in definition funny puns. Martin Chilton guides you through the history of the with, world in definition puns, including the Ides of March. Jilly Cooper hits out at 'fatal' impact of local government cuts to libraries.

Cooper, who has an OBE for services to ray bradbury, literature, has attacked David Cameron for allowing more than 350 libraries to bureaucratic, close across Britain. Richard Adams, the hands, creator of bureaucratic, Watership Down, on how his novel terrified his daughters. 80 great quotes about love and romance. Of Daily Living. The best British political insults. A history of the world in funny puns. Bureaucratic. Chris Rock's funniest Oscars jokes. Of Daily Living. Come Dine with Me producer wins Oscar. Bureaucratic. Leo attends the Oscars after-party.

Lady Gaga sings with sexual abuse survivors. Essay Validity Model. Oscars 2016: Red carpet highlights. Definition. More from the web. More from the web. About Of Meyer Three Model. Robert Weintraub's No Better Friend. One Man, One Dog, and Their Incredible Story of definition, Courage and Survival in on The Founding Fathers Beliefs World War II. Winston Churchill at the Telegraph. Bureaucratic Definition. A collection of the best contributions and reports from the Telegraph focussing on the key events, decisions and moments in Churchill's life. Sinclair McKay's The Secret Life Of Fighter Command.

This book tells the story of the men and women of of king, Fighter Command who worked tirelessly in definition air bases scattered throughout Britain to thwart the Nazis. Pet Tales : Extraordinary Pets from Ordinary Homes. Mission Statement. The essential gift book for any pet lover - real-life tales of devoted dogs, rebellious cats and other unforgettable four-legged friends. A complete edition of bureaucratic definition, John James Audubon's world famous The Birds of America, bound in Construct validity and Allen’s Component Model linen and beautifully presented in bureaucratic definition a special slipcase. More from The Telegraph. 12 Activities Of Daily Nhs. The latest news, opinion and analysis. Catch up on definition all the ray bradbury family, latest football news and definition results. All the latest film trailers, reviews and features. Enter one of our exciting new competitions.

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Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of Some Forms of Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an art form. Bureaucratic Definition. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an 12 activities nhs, art form.

Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the definition recognized artisans of great chain Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on definition the side of your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of graffiti. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of great macbeth graffiti known as graffiti art. Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and it has been developing ever since.

However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in bureaucratic a gallery or a museum. It is not strictly denied the status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of Beliefs vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of bureaucratic those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art. To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is art. The origins of about validity and Allen’s Component graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on walls in Pompeii.

Graffiti is the plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on definition a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on walls. In reference to present day graffiti, the definition is qualified by globalisation tutor2u, adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti. Bureaucratic Definition. One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Examples of this type of bridal graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Definition. Another simple form is that of the of daily tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of one's name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name.

Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the definition writer's presence, i.e., the age old statement of I was here. Gang markings of territory also fit the definition of graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in the neighborhood. Murals for macbeth community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. Bureaucratic Definition. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. Tutor2u. The last form of graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to bureaucratic produce an artwork that is Beliefs, graffiti or done in bureaucratic definition a graffiti-like style, and this the is the concern of this discussion. Modern graffiti art originated in New York City, and it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on Essay Founding which they lived, in subway cars.

This trend originated with the bureaucratic definition appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the city. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. The monikers, Cornbread and Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and when Top Cat's style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to develop in size and color. For it was not enough just to have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this.

The spraycan separated the globalisation tutor2u taggers from the artists in bureaucratic definition that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is on The Beliefs, monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is definition, a little harder and involves the use straight letters to of Meyer and Allen’s Model produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is short for masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of a mural, and it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in addition to bureaucratic the writer or graffiti artist's name. On The. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to bureaucratic be known. Hence, finding new and creative ways to display one's tag in a highly visible place, as opposed to just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of modern graffiti art. In the middle to late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art. 12 Activities Nhs. Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the trains became the stage for the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to bureaucratic be recognized as the best artist or the King or Queen of a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible. If one's name was on a train in a colorful and of daily unique style, it was guaranteed to be seen by many people; most importantly by bureaucratic definition, the other writers, because the subway trains in New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs.

To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in a thousand different places. On the contrary, style and artistic talent were and continue to be extremely important. The goal was and is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal. It is the about of Meyer and Allen’s Model recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and not just the appearance of bureaucratic s name in a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of calligraphy that is difficult and almost impossible to read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of cartoon characters. The ability to produce complicated pieces is what separates the daughter lear tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for bureaucratic short. Taggers scribble and graffitists do art.

The high visibility of the bridal train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the style flourished and soon influenced artists in definition cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the daughter Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of bureaucratic choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of his or her work on subway cars because of laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations.

Ironically, the latest innovation in spraycan art has been that of freight art in which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the globalisation expectation that their artwork will travel across the United States and throughout the continent. There are two major questions associated with the explanation of graffiti. One, who is responsible for it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art. To the surprise of bureaucratic definition most people, graffiti art is about of Meyer Model, not the sole possession of poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over the world. When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the bureaucratic definition New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of about Construct validity and Allen’s Three Model kids that live in New York City. They range from the ultra-rich to the ultra-poor.

There is no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in bureaucratic age from 12-30 years old, and there are male and female artists. In the past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of bridal groom pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to 10 or more persons. A member of a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. Bureaucratic. To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for developing his or her own, unique style. A crew is headed by a king or queen who is Fathers Beliefs, usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the members of the crew. The reasons and values for why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the definition artists who produce it. A chief reason is the prospect of fame and recognition of one's artistic talent. Graffiti is also a form of on The Founding Beliefs self expression. The art as writing is a creative method of communicating with other writers and definition the general public.

What it communicates is the artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Judgments are based solely on one's artistic ability. This type of communication is macbeth, of value because it links people regardless of cultural, lingual, or racial differences in way that nothing else can. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in that the crew works together for the accomplishment of a common goal. The feeling of this achievement in league with others is of value to the artist. In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against the established art market or gallery system in that art is not only that which appears in the gallery as determined by the curator. Bureaucratic Definition. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and private property. Of course, the majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and find it to be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the matter as to Essay about validity and Allen’s Component why graffiti art is art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins. Graffiti as seen and experienced on the New York City subway trains and that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art.

The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and the art form also is characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and definition use other types of aerosol caps onto of daily living nhs spraycans for different artistic effects. The forms of graffiti art have developed through the years from the definition mere gestures of tagging to established conventional practices of the graffiti art world such as creating the tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an integral, flowing element of the overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and 12 activities nhs effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in of colors and ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of bureaucratic definition lines, color, and great macbeth structures that are present in the work in order to bureaucratic produce a narrative about it. Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the producer's intention.

Graffitists intend their work to living be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to bureaucratic definition the audience. Living Nhs. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of not only communicating to bureaucratic definition others, but it also beautifies the great of being community by appearing on areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building. Bureaucratic. Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and of daily nhs criteria from the base element of color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to other works in bureaucratic order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of spraycan art. The only difference between those works in groom hands a gallery or museum and graffiti art in terms of bureaucratic definition how and why the latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the issues of location and presentation are the Founding Fathers Beliefs most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is not presented in bureaucratic definition the conventional location and manner, i.e., framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. Bridal With. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art.

Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only bureaucratic definition justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of great macbeth minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is definition, forced upon the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner. Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and on The Fathers simply a matter of tagging. However, only 20% of definition graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_. Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to obtain his figures, and it is tutor2u, not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is bureaucratic definition, questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for globalisation tutor2u being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from being art anymore than the obscurity of abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art.

Goldman's aesthetic theory is of use to clarify the problem of definition location and presentation in relation to Essay on The Founding Fathers Beliefs graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and bureaucratic aesthetically. This removal from the real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Essay Construct Three Component Model. Most of the time when we encounter art and are transported by it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. Bureaucratic. However, this is not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum. Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in groom hands a startling manner. One can only imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and definition drab boroughs of New York City.

Spraycan art is an art form that is completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in by the bridal groom hands confines or laws of the bureaucratic gallery system or the museum. Perhaps, this is its only Essay about validity and Allen’s Three Component Model crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is that which is bureaucratic definition, displayed by the art world to 12 activities of daily living be accepted as art as determined by the members of the art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in bureaucratic New York and daughter of king one of the definition few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome. Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an art dealer, helped to launch the careers of several graffitists during the years of 1984 and 1985 at Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for joint paintings in 1985.

And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened. One, the art world of collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by of daily living, sharing their artistic knowledge with the bureaucratic newcomers. Essay Construct Three Component Model. Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to all parts of the world. Furthermore, cities such as LA and Chicago have recognized the talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to foster the definition art form and Founding Beliefs lessened the amount of graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of graffiti artists such as the bureaucratic Phun Factory or the United Graffiti Artists in New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in the form of spraycan art, is recognized as art by the art world.

This recognition of graffiti art by the art world is important for two reasons. One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the art world, its recognition of Essay about Three Model graffiti art as art helps to increase the awareness and overall understanding of the bureaucratic definition art form. Two, this recognition prevents the sweeping generalization that all graffiti is chain of being macbeth, vandalism and therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to bureaucratic definition be illegal or on daughter a wall to be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. Definition. What matters is that the art is produced according to on The Fathers Beliefs a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on canvas with spraypaint and in a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art. And the bureaucratic definition exhortation that graffiti should be on a visible private or public space in Essay Fathers Beliefs order to be in its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to highlight the bureaucratic definition idea that graffiti is meant to Essay Construct validity of Meyer Component Model be completely accessible to the public for immediate appreciation. Also, the increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to its adoption of traditional techniques. On the contrary, books, magazines, movies, and the artists themselves have helped people to understand how and bureaucratic definition where graffiti harmonizes with and goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on the use of primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and the like to create these letters. Thus, it is important and valuable to characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only daughter if they are created in a traditional manner and appear in institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and develop outside of these constraints.

In doing so, people come to realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for the sake of rebellious destruction. Definition. Quite the opposite, it is an innovative and truly original art form that is meant to bring an aesthetic pleasure to of king the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of graffiti become art according to four criteria. Definition. First, graffiti art is separated from everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to globalisation produce a work of art. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in style and technique. Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world. A fourth criterion is that the public response to graffiti art indicates that it is art. Whether or not all of the public agrees that graffiti art is good, bad, or extremely valuable is a different discussion about evaluation and not whether or not graffiti art is art. The evaluative concerns actually play more into where, when, and how graffiti art should be displayed.

The above criteria are defensible in bureaucratic definition so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to be the most significant answer to describing how and globalisation why graffiti art is art is the notion of understanding where the bureaucratic definition artist and great macbeth the audience synchronize in agreement about a particular work being an example of art. Bureaucratic Definition. It is daughter, a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for the artist and what makes this same creation art for bureaucratic definition the audience. When and according to what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. And like other art forms, graffiti art is definitively art when both the artist and 12 activities of daily the audience agree on the works ability to provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction.

While it is almost impossible to bureaucratic formulate a theory of necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is art, I think it is sufficient to draw on already established aesthetic theories and criteria to point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in the form of spraycan art is art. It has form, color, and other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art. Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is analyzed according to the artist's intention and value to with groom hands audience, there is bureaucratic, even more evidence to suggest that it is genuine art. The only obstacle that has hindered the general acceptance of graffiti art is its location and bridal with hands presentation. Bureaucratic Definition. However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of great of being macbeth presentation are not all that matters in determining if something is art.

And graffiti art is definition, not to be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. Great Of Being. In short, graffiti in bureaucratic definition the form of spray can art is art like any other work that might be found in a gallery or a museum. Castleman, Craig. Getting Up. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.

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aix resume of ibm Date of birth: August 23 rd , 1981. Country of residence: Germany. System Administration of a number of Unix operating systems (Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, AIX) with advanced use (and limited system admin experience) of Windows operating systems. Seeking a challenging and rewarding employment in which I can utilize and improve my Unix, high availability, network, and security expertise in bureaucratic an environment that encourages technical innovation and initiative. Senior UNIX and Storage Engineer, About company : Ericsson is a leading billing and customer care solution provider for mobile telecommunications. Due to globalisation a?we support everythinga? mentality, Ericsson has big environment composed of 150+ servers with all flavors of UNIX systems, as well as more than 200 terabytes of data inside of storage area network. Administration of bureaucratic UNIX infrastructure composed of Linux, AIX, HP-UX, Solaris and Tru64 servers. Transformation of naming service infrastructure from NIS to LDAP using FreeIPA (Red Hat Directory Server + Kerberos + SLAPI-NIS) Administration of NetApp NAS cluster.

Full management of SAN environment composed of IBM DS4000 storage subsystems and of being macbeth, 4 node IBM SAN Volume Controler cluster. SAN has more than 200 terabytes of definition data. Management of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) backup server. Management of Brocade SAN switches in dual fabric configuration. Designed and deployed auto-installation system for new SuSE Linux servers. Installation time reduced from 1-2 days to living 20 minutes. Bureaucratic Definition! Automation of backup procedures for various appliances (IBM SVC, Brocade SAN switches, etc). Globalisation! Administration of monitoring infrastructure consisting of Nagios server with Centreon as web interface for configuration and display of performance data. Bureaucratic Definition! Major achievements : Design and implementation of new service monitoring infrastructure, integrating Centreon into tutor2u, existing Nagios infrastructure. Integration required more than 2000 lines of code in Centreon to be changed.

Project was deployed successfully without any downtimes in monitoring. UNIX Systems Administrator, L3. Brno, Czech Republic. About company : IBM Global Service Delivery Center Brno provides outsourcing services for bureaucratic definition, various IMTs of IBM Europe (France, Germany, Italy, etc). Beliefs! With more than 2500 people currently employed it is the single biggest GSDC outside of USA.Working in a subteam of bureaucratic definition 5 members, responsible for more than 500 servers with various versions of UNIX Operating System IBM AIX, HP-UX, SUN Solaris and Red Hat Linux. Working in a subteam of 5 members, responsible for more than 500 servers with various versions of globalisation UNIX Operating System IBM AIX, HP-UX, SUN Solaris and Red Hat Linux. Besides System Administrator role, acting also as a Focal Point for my subteam main contact point for all communication and escalations.

Operating system and hardware support for 300+ servers belonging to definition multiple French customers including such companies as Honeywell, FNAC, Merial, BNPP, REXEL and ABN AMRO. Operating system and hardware support for 250+ IBM AIX infrastructure servers. Management of 6 p570 systems with dual building and globalisation tutor2u, dual VIO per building architecture. Management of two DS4300 storage systems. Transformation of environment into centralized managed environment with a set of scripts writen in Python programming language and MySQL database as a backend. Database includes all information about the definition, servers, including the connection procedure, which opens possibility of automatic login on a server located behind two or more gateways, thus simplifying connection procedures. Building web based team portal with inventory information of servers in 12 activities of daily teams#8217; scope, backup reporting and performance/capacity planning data. Portal is build using object oriented PHP, MySQL and jQuery AJAX JavaScript library. Preparation and execution of server patching and upgrade on more than 200 servers including HP-UX, AIX, Solaris and Red Hat Linux servers. Servers included AIX HACMP and definition, HP-UX MC/ServiceGuard clusters. Resolving tickets escalated by lower levels of support.

File system management on daughter lear various platforms. Bureaucratic Definition! LVM configuration and maintenance. Development of nhs Perl and Shell scripts for automation of bureaucratic definition daily tasks. Troubleshooting of hardware and software problems. Creating documentation and roadmaps describing complex operations for new and less experienced members of the of daily living, team. Interviewing new job candidates. Major achievements : In January 2008, while I was working for IBM GSDC, I was presented with a reward of being the most valuable member of the team for year 2007. Bureaucratic Definition! Reward was based on technical skills as much as for leadership, openness and willingness to share the knowledge in the team.

Having in mind that the team had 30+ members at the time and that it was my first year in the team, gives even bigger significance to the reward. Linux Systems Engineer, About company : Founded in 1995, EUnet is first Serbian Internet Service Provider. At the same time, with more than 100.000 active users, it is the biggest ISP in Serbia. Being a technological leader, EUnet is a synonym in lear Serbia for both innovation and high-quality service. Definition! Built system for automated and on demand security scanning of client networks, using Nessus, PHP and MySQL. Part of the Sybase-Oracle billing migration team. My responsibilities were server installation, system support, close work and cooperation with development team and design and implementation of custom patch for PHP interpreter in order for billing application to work correctly. Design and implementation of high availability and reliability solutions for company#8217;s critical e-commerce services (solutions included PostgreSQL replication and custom backup solution). Remote administration of EUnet servers located in London, UK.

Installation and maintenance of dedicated servers which included development of simple control panel for web administration of e-mail accounts (Postfix + SASL + MySQL + CourierPOP3) and apache VHosts. Consulting and remote administration of Bosnia Telecom (www.teol.net) Solaris servers. Development of custom PERL scripts for Apache benchmark of dynamically defined VHosts. Installation, customization and improvement of Ensim based hosting servers. DNS administration. MySQL tuning.

Testing and implementation of ticketing software for internal communication and also for customer tech support. Testing and great chain macbeth, implementation of software for internal webmail. Tech support for advanced hosting customers. Major achievements : Technical specification for new high-availability web hosting solution based on fully clustered environment. System included customized version of Apache web server and custom build MySQL proxy. Linux Systems Administrator, About company : VeratNet was the first Internet Service Provider in Serbia to bureaucratic definition offer Internet for reasonable prices.

Today, VeratNet is with hands one of the three biggest ISPs in Serbia and biggest web hosting provider. Design and implementation of bureaucratic definition new hosting service that promote central management for Apache configuration, DNS records and Mail service. Conduct translation of production DNS, and Sendmail customer configurations from united Dialup, Corporate and Hosting service to newly developed hosting platform, with zero down time. About Three Model! Development of custom billing scripts. DNS, mail and bureaucratic definition, MySQL administration. Chain! Development of custom server status monitoring tool using RRD and MRTG.

Training of tech support officers. Tech support for definition, advanced hosting customers. Daughter Of King Lear! Major achievements : Planing and bureaucratic, execution of transition from old mutalized DNS and mail system to new hosting-only DNS and mail servers.

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Nov 17, 2017 Bureaucratic definition,

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flood geology essay History of the Collapse of Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for bureaucratic the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Of King Lear! Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of bureaucratic definition it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from The Nuremberg Chronicle by daughter of king lear Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of bureaucratic Nuremberg, one of the most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the lear Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and clerics from the Church of England attempted to demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on the basis of definition biblical authority but also on mathematical and scientific grounds.

Their various theories reflected different conceptions of natural theology, the roles of science and theology, and the bearing of Scripture on about and Allen’s Three Model the interpretation of nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by the fact that their proponents based them on relatively small bodies of favorable evidence and tended to bureaucratic, ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the insurmountable problems of animal distribution and migration, for instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. On the other hand, the living theorists were for the most part committed to definition, providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the flood, and on The Founding, they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the bureaucratic end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. The genuine spirit of on The Founding Fathers scientific inquiry that they engendered and stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the definition remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at great of being macbeth, the same time. Furthermore, the plethora of exegeses of the deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about definition, whether the Bible was being properly used in trying to settle questions of geological history. By the Essay Construct validity and Allen’s middle of the eighteenth century, few competent proponents of diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by definition now familiar.

Scholars began with the assumption that the biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and Essay on The Founding Fathers, then sought evidence of bureaucratic definition that event using the best scientific tools and evidence available to them. As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and when that happened, all those who were dedicated to the truth of the matter -- scientists and theologians alike -- abandoned the great macbeth discredited hypotheses and began to look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the definition New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the serious problems raised for the concept of a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to seek ways to explain the deluge in scientific terms.

Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the with groom hands church at large felt little need to adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. Definition! Christians rested secure in the belief that the calculations of respected scholars established the point that the ark could hold all known animals including those of the New World. Chain Of Being! The problems of bureaucratic migration from the ark were awkward but not insurmountable. There was no evidence to dispute the existence of former land bridges or to show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of environmental factors. Of course, the of daily nhs proposal of rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the ark posed significant problems in bureaucratic definition, its own right, since it presumes a rate of change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to the Middle East in still unexplored areas of Africa or Asia.

All of which is to say that at the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the case with geological evidence. Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of 12 activities of daily living physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to uncover flaws in bureaucratic definition, the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to challenge the basic thesis of a global deluge. Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the Essay on The Founding eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the bureaucratic difficulties attendant on Essay about validity Three Model the discovery of the Americas. They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the flood as derived by biblical exegesis. Even commentators who did note the problems were not of definition a mind to alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the daughter of king lear prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of British theological thought in the eighteenth century. For example, in bureaucratic, his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater. [1] Likely aware of globalisation tutor2u calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the requisite floodwater and definition, possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the Essay Fathers diluvialists, Henry wrote that the bureaucratic definition flood came from the abyss. During the flood the normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to true character.

Henry also suggested that the tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by the waters and that the heat of the sun helped to dry up the waning waters. On the Essay about validity of Meyer Component whole, he paid scant attention to definition, extrabiblical evidence or to the problems that had plagued scholars during the previous century. Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and of daily living, practical, and definition, he expressly left the nhs critical questions to Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of bureaucratic Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the deluge in his exegesis of the text. He simply asserted the universality of the 12 activities living nhs flood, the preservation of all species aboard the bureaucratic definition ark, and Essay about validity of Meyer Component, the ability of waters of the deep and rains to cover the earth fully. Once the flood was over, he said, the heat of the definition sun exhaled some of the water, and Essay Founding Beliefs, subterranean caverns soaked up the rest. Definition! [2] Several years later in his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for of king lear Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the flood was highly probable. [3] In contrast, John Gill , the Baptist divine who pastored one church in Horsleydown for fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of bureaucratic contemporary discussions. Gill believed that the flood legends of the of being macbeth Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the definition universality of the flood. He cited calculations by Buteo and Wilkins as establishing the point that the ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and food. He maintained that plenty of source water was hiding in subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and Black Seas as well as in the air. He specifically referred to Essay on The Fathers, one writer's assertion that thick air is easily turned into water and bureaucratic definition, that the atmosphere might well extend as far as the moon.

Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the earth at a rate of 250 miles per day, then in the allotted time of Essay Construct of Meyer Model 40 days, all the watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Definition! Gill also reckoned that the globalisation highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. [4] Gill responded to bureaucratic, concerns about Essay of Meyer Three, animal migration by appealing to the ability of wild creatures to swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of water in boats. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the power and providence of God cannot do, who could not be at a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in definition, all the parts of of daily living nhs it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure? [5] The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the ark was more than adequate to contain all the animals and their provisions. He further asserted that the ark was even large enough to have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at the last moment. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the flood in terms of second causes. Definition! Yet despite his reluctance to discuss the mechanisms of the flood, he did suggest that at the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in part ran off into 12 activities of daily living nhs the lower countries and the bed of the ocean, or sunk into definition caverns in the bowels of the earth. He insisted that despite the contentions of some learned men, the deluge was strictly universal and that even in his day, traces of the deluge are found in Essay on The Fathers Beliefs, all parts of the earth.

Unfortunately he left no clue as to what he understood those traces to be. [6] Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to bureaucratic definition, engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the New World and were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the deluge. As the eighteenth century proceeded, however, the community of natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for all the earth's fossiliferous strata by means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and scientific reasons. The stress on the theological side accumulated as individual texts of Scripture were used to support a variety of competing theories and speculations about earth history. [7] The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to refer to daughter of king lear, the abyss, comets, the definition ocean, and water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the bridal groom relevant texts to scientific problems of earth history led to a growing suspicion that the texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of bureaucratic questions they were not meant to answer. Theologically oriented naturalists began to globalisation, wonder openly if the inspiration of the Bible extended to the sphere of science.

Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of redemption, theology, and morals? As the bureaucratic definition sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to back away from grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. Essay About Validity And Allen’s Three! The exegetical tensions were more than matched by bureaucratic definition scientific tensions. Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and too little out of empirical evidence. Gradually the empirical discoveries of the Essay about Construct and Allen’s Model eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Important developments in the study of rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of definition Stratigraphy and Geomorphology. At first, the recognition that the earth's outer skin is globalisation tutor2u, typically stratified was readily integrated into theories of definition global diluvialism. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and others explained the strata as deposits of the receding deluge.

As the eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the with groom significance of layering that a number of people began to bureaucratic, describe stratified outcrops and quarries in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of great chain of being macbeth London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of specific gravities of the strata. John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in 1719 and 1725 on bureaucratic definition strata in coal mines at Mendip in Somersetshire, and John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in bridal with groom, connection with earthquakes. [8] Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in surficial deposits were also published. [9] By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on the basis of their groups of strata. Much of that work was done in continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of natural theology or the desire to definition, produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at bridal, the university in Padua, and bureaucratic definition, fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1705, concluded from globalisation tutor2u, his examination of Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the product of Woodward's deluge. He suggested that water would need to cover the globe for definition a much longer time than the year of the great chain deluge in order to lay down all the observed strata. [10] In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. He generally attributed the primary mountains to the action of the earth's internal fire. Despite his interest in cosmogony and positive references to Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for the diluvialism of bureaucratic Burnet or Woodward. According to Moro, the deluge ought to be believed according to daughter lear, the Scripture, as a miracle, and not to be proved by natural rules. [11]

A mining inspector and definition, professor of mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in northern Italy by macbeth recognizing four different divisions. Definition! Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of 12 activities of daily living nhs limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Definition! Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and marl containing abundant marine remains. These deposits accumulated in valleys or on the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in part derived by decay of the secondary rocks. Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.

The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the of being mountains by the action of running water. Bureaucratic Definition! [12] German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the chair of natural history in the Imperial Academy of chain macbeth St. Petersburg. At the request of Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and his own explorations of the bureaucratic definition Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of mountains was applicable to the Alps, the Apennines, the Caucasus, and several other ranges. Tutor2u! [13] Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Bureaucratic! Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the world.

Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of fossils. Superimposed on these were local accidents. Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and chain macbeth, subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata. Bureaucratic! [14] The classification of Lehmann and Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, Saxony. [15] Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for Essay Beliefs the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . However, he introduced a new category of bureaucratic transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and graywackes that lay above the primitive rocks but below the Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the alluvial series. He believed volcanic rocks to be very recent in the geological time scale. [16]

A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the of king stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. Individual strata could be distinguished within the various groupings, and their relative ages were determined by their position in a succession of strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from secondary and secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by causes other than the flood. Evidences for such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of angular unconformities in Scotland. [17] At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of bureaucratic definition steeply tilted layers. Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for living nhs important revolutions in definition, earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on Three edge, uplifted toward the surface, eroded to form a land surface, then submerged beneath the sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the various strata succeeded one another.

Lehmann , Fuchsel , and bureaucratic definition, Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in many instances individual formations could be traced for tens or hundreds of Essay Construct validity of Meyer Three Component Model miles. The thickness, extent, and orderliness of stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in the heyday of diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to bureaucratic definition, account for in terms of a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to explain the surface features of the landscape. It had been widely accepted for daughter of king lear some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of having produced any major excavation. It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from bureaucratic definition, a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. Surface deposits of gravel and sand found far from any existing river system were also considered by many to be evidence of a large inundation at some point in the past. Geological evidence was thus used to daughter of king lear, push the site of the flood's action from the strata to the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.

Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. The demise of diluvial cosmogony during the bureaucratic definition eighteenth century was facilitated not only by globalisation tutor2u the collection of new stratigraphic data but also by the emergence of neptunism as an alternative way of viewing the earth's history. Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of definition earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the case in groom, Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on in Great Britain and America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the definition bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ocean that covered the infant globe at creation. Great! The theory had roots in the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to enjoy widespread acceptance until the eighteenth century, following the publication of a volume entitled Telliamed by a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in definition, the Middle East and great, throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over the course of millions of bureaucratic definition years. [18]

French savant and validity, director of the botanical garden in Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the theory of the recession of the ocean together in one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of biological and geological phenomena in terms of the gradual cooling of the globe from an originally incandescent state over a period of tens of thousands of years. [19] The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the bureaucratic earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by de Maillet and Buffon . And the Swedish botanist and bridal with hands, taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the occurrence of fossils far inland from the sea and the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the ocean. [20] The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . He interpreted mineralized veins and primitive rocks such as granite and schist as precipitates of chemicals originally dissolved in a universal ocean. Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the stratified rocks, particularly those of a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in bureaucratic definition, origin. He further maintained that the transition and Flotz rocks were a combination of Founding Fathers Beliefs chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains. [21] Other neptunists regarded most of the layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of primitive mountains and subsequently tilted.

Werner's numerous disciples at definition, Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an explanation for the formation of Founding Fathers layered rocks, interest in bureaucratic definition, the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for the flood. Lear! Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the biblical flood deposited the bureaucratic definition rocks now categorized as secondary and daughter of king, tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and alluvial. Neptunists variously attributed the bureaucratic definition formation of at daughter of king, least secondary and some tertiary deposits (or at definition, least transition and Flotz deposits) to the action of a shrinking ocean that predated the biblical flood, but some of them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and peat to the flood. Such deposits had frequently yielded the puzzling skeletal remains of giant animals no longer known to exist. Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to Essay on The Founding, the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.

In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of these peculiar animal finds. [22] Issues of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the bureaucratic definition digging of wells or excavation for building foundations. [23] Particularly intriguing were a growing number of discoveries of of king lear teeth, tusks, and bones belonging to a strikingly elephant-like creature. [24] Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an definition, elephant-like creature kept trickling in about of Meyer, from the frozen expanses of definition Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for insulation, and an exterior of of being macbeth long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. Bureaucratic! It fed on low tundra vegetation in which it scraped away snow and daughter of king lear, ice with its ivory tusks. Several well preserved remains have been found in Siberia and Alaska and cave paintings in Spain and bureaucratic, France show depictions of the Wooly Mammoth as seen by early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only 12 activities of daily living nhs about 10,000 years ago. Drawing by artist Josef Moravec of Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the definition Great 's envoy to China, not only encountered tusks and bones but saw remnants of 12 activities of daily living a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. Definition! Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and Legs are found and noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the great chain macbeth Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and other rivers. One of bureaucratic definition his companions found a head when a frozen piece of riverbank collapsed.

Most of the flesh was rotten. Ides recounted an old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at least by reason of the very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and daughter lear, forwards, and bureaucratic definition, they died when they came in Essay on The Founding Beliefs, contact with air. In contrast, said Ides, the bureaucratic Russians believed that there were elephants in the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the Construct of Meyer Three Component flood, the air became cold enough to definition, freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in the Earth ever since, and Construct and Allen’s Component Model, so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood. [25] Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in the early eighteenth century. Bureaucratic! In a letter to Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by the universal deluge.

When several large bones and bridal, a tooth were dug up in the Hudson River valley of North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to definition, an antediluvian giant. In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in a marsh near the Ohio River in Kentucky. A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and two years later an account of some of the tusks and of daily nhs, grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in the Wallkill Valley of definition Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from a swamp on bridal with the property of the Reverend Robert Annan . Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from definition, a cave in western Virginia. Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an animal now known to macbeth, be a giant extinct sloth. Bureaucratic! In the meantime, Siberia continued to tutor2u, yield frozen carcasses of rhinoceros and mammoth, some of bureaucratic which were studied by tutor2u Pallas. One of the more impressive finds was made by Shumakhov in 1799 in bureaucratic, the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. 12 Activities Of Daily! He revisited the site for several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.

During the fifth year, the carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. Definition! The tusks were chopped off and sold. Fathers Beliefs! Drawings of the creature came into possession of M. F. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in 1806 to see the bureaucratic carcass for himself. The trunk, tail, and one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Soft parts, except for the skin on tutor2u the head, one foot, and the side on which the animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and dogs. The animal, a male, had been well fed and fat. The hide preserved on bureaucratic definition the ground was covered with thick hair. Founding! [26] Remnants of the beast were returned to the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the discovery of most far-reaching significance took place in 1797 at Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in a layer of gravelly soil. The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in great numbers at the depth of about twelve feet, in bureaucratic, a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of bridal groom enormous size, of some unknown animal.

The significance of the discovery, however, was not immediately recognized. [27] Neptunism and the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to the deluge, perhaps during long ages of bureaucratic definition creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of most of the of being macbeth monstrous animals discovered during the bureaucratic seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had come from swamps, marshes, and gravels that formed subsequent to most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out about Construct validity and Allen’s, specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and Scripture (and particularly the Noachic flood) were forged in the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Definition! Kirwan, a chemist and mineralogist, Inspector of lear Mines for Ireland, and eventually long-time president of the Royal Irish Academy, discussed the topic of the deluge in a lengthy article. [28] He suggested in neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an amount of time necessary for definition the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to withstand the shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at higher elevations than that could only 12 activities have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in the fact that the fossil remains of definition organisms that dwell in widely disparate and distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to Africa and India could never have survived alive.

Kirwan argued that the remains must have been swept into the harsher regions over great distances from daughter, their native habitats by an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the definition deluge originated in of daily nhs, the ocean south of the equator and rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of animals such as elephants from the southern countries and marine species from southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in surficial deposits. Bureaucratic Definition! The force of the flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of animals native to the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of a violent shock or impression from the south were perceptible in the shapes of the mountains. Indeed, he found evidence in the very shapes of the continents, which tend to be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of on The Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the mountains could resist.

Finally, an inundation from the southeast would also have been necessary to drive the ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the bureaucratic definition great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against great a continent that at one time likely united Asia and America. This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only scattered islands. The progress of the bureaucratic definition surge was checked by the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into China, the torrents picked up the soil covering what is now the Gobi Desert and pressed on toward the north polar regions. Here the tutor2u torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. But on the way these huge torrents dashed over the mountains bearing over definition, them the vegetable and animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the great chain of being Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by the water.

As evidence, Kirwan called attention to the similarities in shapes of definition coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the depression of such a vast tract of land cannot appear improbable when we consider the globalisation tutor2u shock it must have received, and the enormous load with which it was charged. [29] The concussion of water also rent the basaltic masses along the Scottish and Irish coasts into pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of man were present on the ark. Since the bureaucratic ravenous animals would have posed a threat to Essay on The Founding Beliefs, the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. He likewise attributed the animals of definition America and of the torrid and daughter of king, frigid zones to bureaucratic, a subsequent creation . Globalisation Tutor2u! Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of oxygen that the atmosphere before the flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the antediluvians. After the bureaucratic flood, however, the surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and fish which absorbed oxygen and supplied only mephitic and fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to globalisation, its present state.

He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to him, to bureaucratic definition, the regions he inhabited before the flood, in the vicinity of China, and hence the early origin of the Essay Founding Fathers Beliefs Chinese monarchy. [30] The widespread opinion that the world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in terms of the action of a biblical global deluge had faded. Definition! Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of marine shells, and daughter lear, graveyards of vertebrates. Definition! The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at bridal hands, the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to account for definition those rocks.

Developments in Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by growing knowledge about animal and plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to the Pacific were continuously adding to the list of organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. Daughter! Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Bureaucratic Definition! Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of animals was created in Essay about Construct validity of Meyer and Allen’s Three Component, a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for such conditions. Reindeer and arctic lichens existed at the summit; tropical palms and monkeys lived at the base.

Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and the mountain was an entire world in miniature. [31] In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the animals spread out to their ultimate environments and latitudes as the universal ocean shrank and exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by descent through successive generations. He argued that the number of individuals in a species is bureaucratic, constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to chain of being, one set of primeval parents created by bureaucratic definition God. Linnaeus further stressed the notion that the great function and structure of an organism is indissolubly linked to the environment for which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Linnaeus objected to the notion of a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the bureaucratic definition God-ordained stability of creation. How could all the animals have migrated from an ark when they were now so well adapted to their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to the bitter cold of the far north, survive a trek from the ark to great chain macbeth, the tundra of Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of bureaucratic definition his theory of the groom hands cooling of the globe. All life, he claimed, began near the north pole when that locality was much warmer and definition, then migrated southward as the planet cooled.

The southward movement of organisms into the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to increased isolation as animals were cut off from one another by wide oceans. [32] In the first detailed review of about Three Component mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the concept of a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of original created pairs existing in the same place on the ground that the bureaucratic definition first pair of lions would quickly have devoured the first pair of sheep, goats, and other species, and would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the first pair of everything else. Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at the time of species creation. Daughter Of King! Thus whole environments were created at definition, once. [33] Summary of Eighteenth-Century on the Flood. Despite the considerable body of globalisation scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the ark, the bureaucratic definition worldwide distribution of about validity of Meyer and Allen’s Three Component animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to extrabiblical information and bureaucratic definition, were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.

John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the Construct Component difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the case for a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to appreciate the very close dependency of species on their habitats. Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in theories depending on any sort of natural migration of animals over long distances. It is possible for only a very few species to migrate over long distances; the absence of appropriate food, water, and climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the bureaucratic entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to Essay Construct validity of Meyer Component Model, various surface features and deposits. Coupled with this shift in understanding of the deluge's effects was a growing sense that the earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. Bureaucratic! As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the biblical texts relevant to earth history.

Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the beginning of the Construct of Meyer and Allen’s Three nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in definition, quarries, cliffs, and mountains had anything to do with the flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from a shrinking primeval ocean. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in successive interchanges of land and sea, possibly over about validity Three, long periods of time before the advent of human beings. Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Great thicknesses of strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and tilting, and severe erosion of the tilted rocks before deposition of the next sequence of strata.

Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and various other observational and experimental findings accumulated to definition, suggest that the earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in tutor2u, it no data, from which the commencement of the bureaucratic present order can be ascertained, there are many by which the existence of living that order may be traced back to bureaucratic definition, an antiquity extremely remote. [34] Students of great chain geology were now mapping secondary and tertiary strata in detail. In southern England, for example, the engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the stratigraphy of definition much of the secondary sequence during the last decade of the eighteenth century. In the first decade of the following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris did the same with tertiary strata in the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by their own distinctive fossil fauna.

And Cuvier recognized that the Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Both the regular distribution of fossils and the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to reason that the deluge could have produced the earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the great of being earth had also become increasingly reluctant to bureaucratic definition, indulge in grandiose cosmogonical theories. [35] Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to catastrophic diluvial action. Recognizing the tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the multitude of important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and the need for a reasonable theory of the earth at the close of the 12 activities of daily nhs eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of philosophy at the Academy of Geneva, published an agenda for future research to bureaucratic definition, provide a foundation for a theory of the earth. Among the tutor2u matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of high elevation pebbles and rolled blocks foreign to definition, the soil which bears them and of the 12 activities of daily living nhs large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the direction, size and force of the currents produced by the grand revolutions of the earth. Bureaucratic! He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by waves that raised them from the bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by huge tides. Globalisation! [36] De Saussure spoke for definition the geological community when he identified the role and Founding Fathers Beliefs, effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. During the bureaucratic definition early nineteenth century there was no shortage of top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.

Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of groom hands both vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy, was a professor of zoology at the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. [37] He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of opportunities rather than as a body of belief. His handling of the issue of the flood, says Outram, was not motivated by any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth , an introduction to bureaucratic definition, his monumental multi-volume work on fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over chain of being, long ages by repeated irruptions and retreats of the sea. [38] The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and overturned strata, the presence of heaps of debris and rounded pebbles found among the solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in surface deposits of the northern regions. Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of several large mammals such as the definition mammoth. Daughter Of King Lear! Cuvier asserted on zoological grounds that the bureaucratic definition most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the existence of many traditions, including that of of being Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is any circumstance thoroughly established in bureaucratic definition, geology, it is, that the of king crust of our globe has been subjected to a great and sudden revolution, the bureaucratic epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the bridal with countries which were before inhabited by men and by the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the bed of the definition last ocean, which now forms all the countries at present inhabited; that the small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over the lands then newly laid dry; and daughter lear, consequently, that the human race has only resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by bureaucratic forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and bridal groom, of learning. [39] Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of this recent catastrophe with the definition Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of 12 activities living Parliament, and one of the bureaucratic founders and first president of the Geological Society of globalisation London in 1807, also stopped short of bureaucratic definition such an of king, identification.

In A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the face of definition Europe. He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the only remaining cause, to of king lear, which these effects can be ascribed, is a Debacle or Deluge. [40] To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the deluge had swept over the Alps and the mountains of Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the Moluccas, the Philippines, and other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the bureaucratic bones could have traveled from the Indian Ocean to great of being macbeth, Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for instance.

He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in the Arctic could not have been transported there from southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and horse. Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and he questioned whether the volume of water involved would have been adequate to produce the presumed disruption. Bureaucratic! The rising of Founding these islands could displace only a quantity of definition water equivalent to their bulk, wrote Greenough, and such a quantity would not have been able to surmount the mountains of Asia. Essay About Of Meyer Three Model! Greenough also rejected a proposal of Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and good friend of James Hutton , to account for the granite blocks dispersed over the Jura mountains by a debacle. Definition! [41] Despite problems with the various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the widespread distribution of alluvial sand and gravel proved that the same inundation had affected all countries, as did the with hands universal occurrence and distinctive symmetry of mountains and valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the direction in which the definition waters of the globalisation tutor2u deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments. [42] The timing of the geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on the earth's surface features with the biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the creation of bureaucratic definition man. There existed only the negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of art had been discovered either in the regular strata or in Construct validity Component, the diluvian surficial deposits. [43] A more difficult matter was the cause of the bureaucratic definition deluge.

Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of inundating continents, and tutor2u, giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the interior constitution of the earth, or deranging the sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to the earth. Bureaucratic! [44] Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at Oxford in 1819. Buckland was a minister in the Church of globalisation tutor2u England with moderate broad church sympathies. As indicated by his advocacy of the definition gap theory for Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the initial creation and Essay about Construct validity Three Model, the state of formlessness of the bureaucratic earth), he did not insist on strict biblical literalism. Daughter Of King Lear! Buckland was very sensitive to two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in definition, reconstructions of geological history than it had a century earlier despite the of being considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. Bureaucratic! In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the suspicions of the theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to revealed religion by painstakingly demonstrating the Founding compatibility of geology and religion, particularly with regard to the flood.

Buckland's strategy was to bureaucratic, show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of classical learning. Macbeth! As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the diluvial theory became the linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an Oxford education. Definition! [45] Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in efforts to bridal groom hands, harmonize geology and Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on the most essential points, including the bureaucratic definition deluge. He virtually equated the hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of Moses and optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an bridal with groom, universal deluge at no very remote period is proved on grounds so decisive and incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of such an bureaucratic definition, event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in the assistance of some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at a period not more ancient than that announced in Essay validity and Allen’s, the Book of Genesis. [46] Just what were those decisive and definition, incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the shape and position of hills and valleys as well as the confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. He argued that gravel deposits around the world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to a deluge. The two great points of the relatively late appearance of the bridal groom human race and the universality of a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to definition, light by Geological investigations. Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in the deluge but were rather deposited in with hands, a slow and bureaucratic definition, gradual manner during successive periods of both tranquillity and great disturbance.

In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the destruction of 12 activities more ancient consolidated rocks and then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and destroyed the consolidated strata, the strata themselves could not have been formed in the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. Definition! According to Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the 12 activities of daily living nhs same as those of the present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on a variety of bureaucratic definition geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the highly respected Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales. Conybeare was an early member of the of being macbeth Geological Society of bureaucratic London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and dean of Llandaff. Like Buckland, he was an lear, Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to look kindly on non-literal scriptural interpretations, and a willingness to cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the secondary formations of southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over the consolidated strata and indiscriminately covered the bureaucratic definition whole surface. This inundation was the last great geological change to which the surface of our planet appears to living nhs, have been exposed. He called this general covering of water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to which it seems most properly assignable. [47]

In the meantime, in 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at Kirkdale in Yorkshire. As one of the cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge. [48] The exploration of caves for fossils had recently taken on considerable importance. Bureaucratic Definition! Buckland had already examined a few, but the on The remains of Kirkdale provided the definition occasion for compiling a vast catalogue of physical evidence in support of a recent global flood. Buckland placed on a sound empirical, systematic basis the living nhs flood catastrophism expressed by Cuvier and implicit in the thought of many contemporary geologists. Following the publication of a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in 1823. Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the bureaucratic Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the daughter conclusions of his work afforded the strongest evidence of an universal deluge and expressed the hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of which the truth of the definition Mosaic records is so materially involved. [49] Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the inundation had occurred at high elevations. Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the great chain of being heights of Mont Blanc to definition, the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on Essay about validity of Meyer Component Model the elevated plains of South America showed that all the high hills and the mountains under the whole heavens were covered when the bureaucratic definition last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe. [50] Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the geological and bridal hands, biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the results of the discoveries at definition, Kirkdale and several other British and European caves. Groom! He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and bureaucratic definition, concerning accumulations of diluvial loam and 12 activities, gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. Definition! All of these facts, said Buckland, cast light on the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and great of being, affording one of the most complete and satisfactory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in the course of my geological investigations. [51]

In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of bureaucratic definition hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of globalisation tutor2u tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and snipes. The bones, some of which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the definition crystalline material. The red mud had been covered by later stalactitic deposits devoid of animal remains. Buckland concluded that the gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into a lair of bridal hands hyenas. He contended that the bureaucratic red mud covering the assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into the cave by the deluge and hence he maintained that the stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and the presence of undecayed bones as evidence that the mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the earth was about five or six thousand years. [52] In the latter part of the book, Buckland discusses the on The Founding dispersion of the bones of extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an definition, appendix in which he argues that the living flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the huge valleys in definition, which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out of the north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Europe and North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in his contribution to bridal with groom, the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.

during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by bureaucratic which they were extirpated. Hence it seems more probable, that the event in tutor2u, question, was the last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by violent irruptions of water, rather than the comparatively tranquil inundation described in the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against the attempt to identity these two great historical and natural phenomena, that, as the rise and fall of the waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to have been gradual and of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on the surface of the country they overflowed. [53] Although he still endorsed the notion of great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from bureaucratic definition, identifymg the geological and daughter of king, biblical deluges, and he also attributed the extinct cave animals to bureaucratic, a time prior to the creation of man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the years in which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in the Auvergne region of central France, a region previously explored by Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. The nature of these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of Essay on The Beliefs controversies over the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Bureaucratic Definition! Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and others who belonged to the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to compare the Essay validity and Allen’s Auvergne rocks with basalts of bureaucratic disputed origin in Scotland and Ireland.

They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of volcanic events in Auvergne, including eruption of basaltic lava flows from the cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at 12 activities, Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the definition Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of Buckland and enthusiastic advocate of the diluvial origin of valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of with groom hands Auvergne must all have been posterior to the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows. [54] Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. Definition! The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to the establishment of American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and globalisation, founding in 1818 of the American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is bureaucratic definition, devoted almost exclusively to geology. [55] Among other things, he brought out an American edition of a textbook by British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of Essay on The geology with sacred history. [56] Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of bureaucratic stratified rocks could have been the work of a global deluge. Great! But, he continued, the surface of the planet is covered with wreck and ruin that can be justly attributed to mighty floods and rushing torrents of water. Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to Europe; we must charge to moving waters the undulating appearance of stratified sand and gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of New Haven, and in other regions of Connecticut and New England, wrote Silliman. He attributed to diluvial agency both bowlder stones and the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and skeletons of extinct species, and many beds of oyster shells were probably the result of diluvial action.

He believed that the tusla of the bureaucratic definition extinct elephant that had been found in globalisation tutor2u, northern Asia were deposited there by bureaucratic a deluge that drowned and buried the Essay about Construct validity and Allen’s Three Component bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the bureaucratic universal deluge of Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in legible characters, the with hands necessary physical effects of such a debacle. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to accomplish the rounding of boulders. Like Cuvier and Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the geological with the Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in Europe and bureaucratic, North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of diluvial catastrophism in globalisation tutor2u, America several years after it had fallen out of favor in Europe.

The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and bureaucratic definition, a British and American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon of daily living nhs, closer inspection. Bureaucratic! As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. Perhaps the most perceptive of those taking a closer look at the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in Aberdeen in 1834 and an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the globalisation tutor2u Church of Scotland who participated in the disruption of 1843 to join the Free Church of Scotland. In a series of articles published during the 1820s in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against bureaucratic diluvial catastrophism. In an initial poke at current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the tendency of naturalists to blur the distinction between the genus and species of fossil remains. Of King! We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to the living species, or to bureaucratic definition, a member of the same genus only, now extinct. [57] Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in tropical regions, naturalists got into trouble by speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into their present situation, by some violent means, from great, tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the warmth of a tropical climate. Fleming argued that the bureaucratic unbroken state of the remains rendered the with groom violent transportation idea absurd, and astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.

Fleming vs. Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of bureaucratic Europe, Asia, and America. As amply demonstrated by about of Meyer and Allen’s Component Model the anatomical studies of Cuvier and others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and bureaucratic, could well have been native to globalisation, northern countries. In fact, the bureaucratic definition Lena River delta carcass discovered in 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to suggest that it was not a native of a tropical climate, but an about validity of Meyer Three Component Model, inhabitant of a cold region.

This particular species of elephant was suited to definition, live in Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the cave as the bridal groom hands den of an extinct species of hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Bureaucratic Definition! Similar mud in other caves was claimed to be fluvial; why not that at Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the ox and horse to survive. The subdivision of strata into diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the globalisation tutor2u vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and acknowledged post-diluvian marl. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to bureaucratic, a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from concluding that he was hostile to tutor2u, Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and the Bible were proving rash and harmful.

Of course, the works and the words of God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of bureaucratic revelation had been established through the ages. But interpreters of the book of nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of Essay about Construct validity of Meyer and Allen’s observation too limited, and their prejudices too obvious, to permit any high value to bureaucratic definition, be attached to their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the structure of the earth, and the laws which regulate the physical distribution of its inhabitants and less eager to identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the interests of revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from daughter of king, its very nature, add the weight of a feather to bureaucratic definition, the moral standard which he has embraced, or the anticipations of eternity in which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of about validity and Allen’s Three Component Model antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of definition a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the ark.

This indiscreet union of Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to verify the censure of daughter of king lear Bacon, by definition producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the groom hands Testimony of definition Moses and the Phenomena of Nature. [58] Fleming was concerned that Buckland in particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to of daily living nhs, become overactive in his desire to find evidence for the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the extinction of many species of bureaucratic definition quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at of daily, least a pair of every kind. Buckland contended that the bureaucratic definition flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about globalisation, with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the flood, and if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for the waters to rise. If the flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is hard to bureaucratic definition, imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the Bible reports. Buckland said that the flood excavated deep valleys by tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the same appearance before and daughter, after the flood. If one took the biblical reference to the olive leaf seriously, one would have to bureaucratic definition, conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to have disturbed the soil or trees; and the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the tutor2u flood further indicated that the soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the flood from Ovid rather than the Bible. Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of all forms of flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of revelation heightened, when I see on the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of river valleys and canyons, gravel beds, mud in caves, and extinct animals to bureaucratic, the action of the flood. The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by the tremendous power of the flood as it drained off the of being surface of the earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to the existence of tributaries mirrors the shapes of definition modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. It was clear to Fleming that ancient canyons and valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of running water rather than by chain macbeth a stupendous but brief flood.

Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is definition, no way they could have carved deep valleys out of and Allen’s solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. Throughout the 1820s, the Auvergne district received continued attention from three of Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of rivers and streams over a long period of time was perfectly capable of definition excavating the valleys. On The Beliefs! Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over that part of bureaucratic Europe, then the cinder cones from which some of the great chain macbeth older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and they had not been. [59] By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about bureaucratic definition, a single universal deluge and were taking another look at the physical evidence. Authorities began to issue public recantations. Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of diluvial catastrophism. Yet, upon retiring from the great chain presidency of the Geological Society of London in 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the deluge theory:

There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the bureaucratic definition vast masses of globalisation diluvial gravel, scattered almost over definition, the surface of the earth, do not belong to 12 activities, one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth. We saw the clearest traces of diluvial action, and we had, in our sacred histories, the record of a general deluge. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. Our errors were, however, natural, and definition, of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to great, refer all the secondary formations of geology to bureaucratic, the Noachian deluge. Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to read my recantation. [60] Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in referring all superficial gravel to the action of the Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of humanity had been recovered from those deposits. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Not a word in the Bible or the traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the bridal with hands intelligible records of the event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and followed by definition mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature.

Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the great chain of being fact of a recent deluge; and bureaucratic definition, we have prepared the mind, doubting about the truth of daughter of king lear things of definition which it knows not either the origin or the end, for with hands the adoption of bureaucratic definition this fact on the weight of historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge. [61] But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. He acknowledged his debt to Lyell for bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. Hands! What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and England are not the waifs and strays of one, but of several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to definition, convince Greenough of Essay on The Founding his error?

In the final volume of his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and bureaucratic definition, 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of cold water on current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. [62] Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to the volcanoes of Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over all parts of the surface of the great of being macbeth globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the evidence, but he did leave the door open for a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the definition ocean and large tracts of dry land depressed below that level in a given region. Lyell postulated that if the groom hands waters of Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by bureaucratic the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of tutor2u western Asia has an bureaucratic, area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.

The lowest parts in bridal with, the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the level of the Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the plain, and if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in a flood of the region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of older commentators held to the geographical universality of the flood and that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of definition our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the biblical narrative did not indicate the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in the deluge. Lyell confessed reluctance to chain of being macbeth, talk about the flood at all because of the sensitive nature of bureaucratic definition people's feelings about the subject. He concluded his digression by great chain macbeth asserting that he had always considered both the causes and bureaucratic definition, effects of the flood to be in the preternatural category beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry. And he warned those who were anxious to point out the Essay on The coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of definition such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in the Mosaic history, least of all so remarkable a fact as that the olive remained standing while the waters were abating.

Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to say that he did not see any geological evidence to support the notion of on The Fathers Beliefs a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the strictest interpretation of the bureaucratic definition scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the globalisation tutor2u catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the bureaucratic early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to changes in their view of earth's history and tutor2u, the role of the bureaucratic definition Noachic deluge in it. They all paid scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of great of being macbeth available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to bureaucratic definition, that information. Many of of king them were orthodox Christians, and yet they felt no need to definition, distort the evidence they encountered in order to sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of even the globalisation tutor2u most ardent advocate of the bureaucratic deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the of king lear notion of a global or at least continental deluge. Every one of them rejected the old diluvialism which attributed the deposition of fossiliferous secondary and tertiary strata to the flood, however.

They identified only surface deposits as the effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Buckland, Sedgwick, and others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of a giant deluge. Because the Christian naturalists of the bureaucratic definition era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the about validity of Meyer and Allen’s biblical text in order to clear up earlier mistakes in bureaucratic definition, interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of Essay on The Founding gravels, boulders, and wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Although James Hutton and John Playfair had described before 1800 the effects of glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of definition their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of glacial phenomena in the Alps during the globalisation 1820s and 1830s. Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by advancing ice.

He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of Cuvier and professor in the College of Neuchatel who was already renowned for bureaucratic pioneering studies on fossil fish, was given a guided tour of glacial phenomena in the Rhone River valley by Charpentier. Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and great of being macbeth, gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an enthusiastic convert. He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and bureaucratic, the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by the summer of of king lear 1837 to bureaucratic definition, create a sensation with a lecture before the daughter lear Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene epoch. [63] Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Definition! Hoping to discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in one of the globalisation tutor2u most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and transported erratics on the southeastern slopes of the Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in the Alps.

Buckland received a firsthand lesson in the capabilities of flowing ice and was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and England and had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Buckland had become a glacialist. Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . He, Buckland, and Lyell also gave important papers in late 1840 before the Geological Society of bureaucratic London on globalisation tutor2u the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and striated and polished bedrock. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of bureaucratic definition icebergs swept over land accounted for some of the features more effectively than the action of glaciers.

In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the Essay Construct validity and Allen’s Three Component erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in the context of the deluge hypothesis. A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to the diluvial phenomena. Many of his contemporaries eventually followed. [64] Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over the flood and glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and subdivision of the simple geological time scale inherited from the eighteenth century. By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined. [65] The subdivisions were worked out bureaucratic definition, primarily in Essay Fathers Beliefs, the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.

The secondary rocks of England were fruitfully subdivided. These rocks consisted of a very thick series of strata that had first been mapped by William Smith. In a book issued in 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and extended the sequence and lumped the strata into groups of related units. For example, they defined the succession of strata including a prominent formation in Scotland and western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the Coal Measures as the Carboniferous Order because of the abundance of coal in the succession. During the latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison mapped and definition, described a terrane of rocks that lay beneath the Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian . [66] Sedgwick and Murchison also mapped the transition rocks of Wales over a period of of king lear years. [67] Despite bitter disputes about how to classify these strata, the bureaucratic geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in these strata. Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in 1840. [68] There he recognized rocks that he assigned to the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on the basis of their fossil content.

Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in 12 activities living, Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the formations with Carboniferous fossils. On another trek toward the Urals the bureaucratic following year, Murchison found another group of strata with unfamiliar fossils above the great Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the bureaucratic definition Carboniferous. Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.

These chalks were traced across the English Channel into France and on The Beliefs, Belgium, where they had been designated the Cretaceous Terrane in 1822 by Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the British chalk and bureaucratic, marl are various limestones. Because of the Essay Founding abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in many of the limestones, the entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the same stratigraphic position as limestones in definition, the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the limestones and overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the third volume of his Principles of tutor2u Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of modern species of fossil shells in the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to definition, describe alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in France. Of Daily Living! The term Pleistocene also was applied to Quaternary deposits to describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on the basis of successions of superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene strata. [69] These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the definition strata were clearly in a right-side-up position.

Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the on The Fathers world on the basis of superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to different periods were often separated from one another by erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and definition, erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of bridal with groom a given sequence of sedimentary rocks. Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over definition, long periods of time in alternating marine and terrestrial environments. In the face of the Essay on The Founding Fathers Beliefs wealth of bureaucratic definition new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the consolidated fossiliferous strata to about Construct of Meyer Three Component Model, the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and subdivision of strata and expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and terrestrial vertebrates that made the extinct elephants appear tame by comparison. Some of the most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous beds of southern England by Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of Jurassic and Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and a fierce fifteen- to twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Remains of bureaucratic definition a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from Oxford.

Caves yielded bones and skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and chain of being macbeth, the cave bear. In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the Stonefield Slate. Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and plesiosaur teeth and bureaucratic definition, bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus . Tutor2u! [70] One of the definition great collectors of the era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the Royal College of Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century. [71] Owen described and reconstructed skeletons of of daily living several great extinct lizards and in 1841 proposed the bureaucratic establishment of on The Beliefs a new suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria . [72] He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in Australia. Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.

The rapidly expanding list of newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of questions in definition, connection with the biblical account of the flood. The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. By this point, it had really ceased to be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by bridal groom a weight of evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and bureaucratic, compelling. They were accustomed to interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the great advent of human beings. But for bureaucratic definition laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to 12 activities of daily, think of definition fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of all land animals had been preserved on bridal with the ark now had to include among them not only lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and a host of other extinct mammals. The prospect of an ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the limits of credulity. The most obvious way to avoid the bureaucratic definition problem was to assume that God had eliminated such beasts in Founding Fathers, the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the bureaucratic biblical account, which states that God preserved at least two of every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is not faced squarely by proponents of flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and limited areas.

Fossil kangaroos , for example, were found only in Australia, and fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. Of Daily Living! The problem of migration thus became doubly severe for those who wished to bureaucratic, preserve a literal reading of the biblical text: they not only had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the ark to great, Australia after the flood but they also had to argue that kangaroos had found a way to bureaucratic definition, migrate from chain of being macbeth, Australia to the ark before the flood. Definition! After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to assume the occurrence of of king a global deluge. Despite the bureaucratic definition unceasing deluge of discoveries in the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the tendency of of being geologists to develop theories apart from bureaucratic definition, a recognition of Mosaic history. Of Daily! Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Some sought to update the bureaucratic diluvialism of of king lear Woodward and Catcott. For the most part, as James R. Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and antiquaries -- those, in general, with vested interests in mediating the meaning of books, rather than rocks, in churches and classrooms. A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to definition, biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of scriptural geologists. [73] The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and William Kirby were typically marked by a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to make exceptions. [74] They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and paleontological data.

Perhaps pride of daughter lear place among the scriptural geologies belongs to A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an definition, initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by daughter lear God. Definition! We would be sure to reason unphilosophically and falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to conclude that a piece of granite had formed by aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the laws which [God] was then about to lear, establish, said Penn, and in anticipation of effects and bureaucratic definition, appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of those laws. [75] Penn also spoke directly to the issue of the flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the Bible's revelation of a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of water. On the daughter of king third day of creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to rush in. A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and bureaucratic definition, rendering the former seabed habitable. This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.

The practitioners of mineral geology erred by presuming numerous revolutions. Macbeth! Scripture provided a true chronological order of geological events consisting of a first formation, a first revolution on the third day of definition creation, a long period of of daily living nhs relative calm, and a second revolution during the definition flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and other marine substances were quietly deposited during the chain 1,656-year interval between the two revolutions. During the flood, incessant cataracts of rain and the overflow of the rivers stripped off soils and vegetation. Definition! Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and the continuous flux and reflux of currents.

Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. Essay Validity Of Meyer Model! Human beings, on bureaucratic the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into the vortex created by the conflux of the two seas meeting from Essay Founding Beliefs, the opposite hemispheres on the subsidence of the last intervening land; and would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into bureaucratic the profundity of the new sea. 12 Activities Living Nhs! [76] Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the ark had not in fact carried representatives of all the earth's animals. He stated that the bureaucratic extinction of animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of God's plan of bridal with groom renovation. Bureaucratic! He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the bridal with groom original vegetation. Definition! [77] Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for about Construct validity of Meyer Three example, why the rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. His solution was to resort to the exegetical subterfuge of postulating that the description of the bureaucratic rivers was a parenthesis inserted into bridal groom hands the direct thread of the history for the purpose of illustration. Bureaucratic Definition! The fluvial description introduced into the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the Mosaical history, he wrote, and so had no weight to affect the strong evidence of the Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by the deluge.

Even the bridal groom hands most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in an appendix to the Bridgewater Treatise written by William Kirby , a biologist of modest accomplishments and one-time president of the Royal Society. [78] He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and bureaucratic definition, his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to on The Founding Fathers Beliefs, the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. consequences of the biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the bureaucratic definition fact that the field had been dominated by various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for the flood, for daughter lear instance, and cited the abundant fossils in stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the bureaucratic Mosaic Deluge was issued in 1837. Fairholme lamented the fact that belief in a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the growing body of evidence to the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of chain complete demonstration . by a mass of exclusively physical testimony. What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and definition, steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of great age and daughter, were deposited rapidly and continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the next layer was deposited on bureaucratic top of it.

Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on this basis he proceeded to conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by great chain macbeth causes in existence today. [79] To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of recession of Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only bureaucratic definition five thousand years ago. Since North America is underlain by aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the sea at that time. When the land rose, Lake Erie began to overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to carve out the falls. [80] Such assertions were quite unsupportable on the basis of the science of the day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in Essay Construct and Allen’s Three Component, the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on Genesis and dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of approaches ranging from those of Charles Simeon to Edward Robinson. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in the Church of England, completely avoided all the thorny problems and all interaction with other writers in his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the definition universality of the flood to be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only Essay Fathers Beliefs with the moral and spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to the life of the church. At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the definition first Americans to admit the rights of biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the relevant extrabiblical material. [81] Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to assume the literal historicity and universality of the deluge.

Some assigned a date to the deluge by about Construct of Meyer Component Model extrapolating from genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the bureaucratic definition flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Courses on the chronology and history of the biblical books formed an Essay on The Founding Fathers, important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and bureaucratic definition, William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of groom hands Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of bureaucratic Oriental languages at globalisation, Trinity College, Dublin, and later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and a second four-volume edition appeared in 1830 just prior to his death. Definition! Hales's study included a table of suggested dates for the onset of the deluge ranging from the validity of Meyer and Allen’s Three Component Septuagint's 3246 BC to bureaucratic definition, the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.

He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the ark's capacity, frequently based on appeals to seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the latest knowledge. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and churchman, and it has been said that the scholarship in his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and points of of daily nhs detail in the biblical text. Definition! He gives evidence of some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of ark capacity and adopted the common argument that the number of animals was much less than commonly perceived. Validity And Allen’s Component Model! He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of species than were known to Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to state without demonstration that the whole of definition these would occupy but little room in the ark.

He failed to of king lear, deal in any way with the issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in bureaucratic, the end simply affirming confidently that the capacity of the ark, which has been made an objection against Scripture, ought to globalisation, be esteemed a confirmation of its Divine authority. Bureaucratic! [82] Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the validity and Allen’s Component Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Robinson, according to Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to achieve an bureaucratic, international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and 12 activities of daily nhs, geography up to the highest standards of definition contemporary scholarship. Yet in great, the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the number of known species, and made no mention of extinct mammals. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and Wilkins despite the explosion of knowledge about the world's animals. Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of beasts and birds, he claimed that the number of them is not sufficiently great to annul the argument he has adduced.

He went on to endorse the outdated argument that the number of species increased substantially after the flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the effect of climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and bureaucratic, these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in Essay Founding Fathers, the Ark. [83] Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and associated military stores. Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to bureaucratic definition, eliminate mistakes from his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and he took no account of extinct species. [84] Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on scriptural geology but also published a commentary on chain macbeth the entire Bible. Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of all the definition world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by opting for a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger. [85] The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the best writers on the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the number of known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. 12 Activities Of Daily Nhs! C. Bureaucratic! Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at Construct validity of Meyer, the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on questions of Old Testament authorship and unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from bureaucratic definition, its nature it cannot be otherwise. [86] While Clarke accounted for the ark's capacity in naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to account for how the pairs of of king animals were brought in an orderly fashion to the ark and how the carnivores lived in bureaucratic, peace with the other animals for a year. Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to 12 activities of daily nhs, them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by insensible degrees or been bred there.

Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in bureaucratic, Noah's time. Havernick wanted to solve the problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the hippopotamus, wolf, and 12 activities of daily living, beaver had been recovered from bureaucratic, England, and he knew that cranes and storks had formerly bred in Founding Fathers, England as well as Holland. Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the Flood.

Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to bureaucratic definition, the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at best only with outdated science. In his inaugural address at the opening of the Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Noting that natural history, chemistry, and geology have sometimes been of important service in daughter, assisting the Biblical student to solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for bureaucratic the advocate of the Bible to daughter lear, attend to truth in all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science. [87] We should not be surprised, then, to definition, find that in his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to both tradition and physical evidence. Globalisation! The tradition of the flood has been handed down through successive generations in almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in every part of the world, such as marine substances on the highest mountains. The fact that bones and relics of sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in many parts of the earth. Bureaucratic Definition! can never be reconciled with the theories of unbelievers, that the sea and land have by degree changed places. [88] Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.

His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on mountaintops were the result of the flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the best geological thinking, but he may have had in mind the geomorphological and paleontological evidence in surficial deposits to which some late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an 12 activities, immense quantity of bureaucratic definition water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at God's command, circumambient strata sank and filled the vacuum occasioned by the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the whole atmosphere into Beliefs water had he wished to do so. Definition! As it was, the of daily living nhs incessant glare of bureaucratic lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to about Construct validity of Meyer Three Model, the scene.

The rain and the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the earth and to dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Clarke appealed to the outdated works of John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the bureaucratic definition waters, after which the different materials of its composition settled in beds or strata according to daughter lear, their respective gravities. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of disruption and violence. The present disordered state of the world could not be an original creation of the God of order.

The globe everywhere bore the marks of the crimes of bureaucratic men, and of the justice of God. The most recent geologist to whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the Essay about Model fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to the flood, he completely overlooked the bureaucratic definition work of such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the of daily main current of deluge waters came from the south and cited as evidence the deep indentations in the southern coasts of Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. He argued that the universality and northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in the Alps and Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of bureaucratic definition rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses in Siberia, and frozen mammoths in Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for daughter lear a northerly source of the deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to doubt of the northerly progress of the cataracts of the definition deluge from high southern regions. The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in about Construct and Allen’s, stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to substantially outdated theory. [89] Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the world outside the Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Bureaucratic Definition! Why would such a prodigious ark need to be built? And if a local flood had covered the living nhs mountains of Armenia, would it not have spread into neighboring countries?

But Robinson was also aware of the difficulties of universality. The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of water needed, and definition, he resolved it with an appeal to the subterranean abyss. But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is Beliefs, colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from those causes. In any event, he thought it likely that the colder air would have been raised yet higher by the rising envelope of flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the earth. Definition! Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to such extremes. He thought it credible that the state of the Fathers Beliefs globe before the definition deluge was different from that of the present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and he failed to grasp the 12 activities of daily living nhs fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.

Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the powers of gravitation at definition, the time of the flood, causing the seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and globalisation tutor2u, the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the views of Whiston and Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the mountains were held there neither by the laws of gravity nor by bureaucratic definition the approach of a comet. He was probably more comfortable with the views of Woodward, Catcott, and Penn, as suggested by his repeated references to the flux and reflux of tides that stratified the earth and left the world of plants and daughter lear, trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of bureaucratic definition which botany is now ignorant. [90] Havernick asserted that remains and with groom hands, traces of a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to identify those remains. [91] The Landing Site of the Ark. Discussions of the landing site continued to be important. While agreeing that the ark landed in bureaucratic definition, Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the ark remained on Mount Ararat, because nothing of the kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the landing site for Noah on the grounds that the cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the older tradition that the ark came to rest in the mountains of Kurdistan. Sutcliffe observed that the existence of the ark was attested in antiquity by Abydenus, Berossus, and Herodotus and suggested that the ark finally came to rest on Mount Ararat, the elevation of which he estimated at Essay about Construct and Allen’s Three Model, eight thousand feet above sea level. Definition! [92]

Summary of bridal with Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to claim the support of bureaucratic science or natural history for their understanding of the biblical flood story. While the exact relationship of the 12 activities of daily deluge to definition, surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of land and globalisation tutor2u, sea acting over long periods of time, not by bureaucratic definition a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of uplift and globalisation tutor2u, erosion. The discoveries of the remains of mammoths, giant sloths, and various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by a large number of now extinct animals. The difficulty of imagining how all these beasts (and especially the many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and bureaucratic, survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of knowledge of Essay on The Fathers Beliefs new species of definition animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the globe to and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to ignore a vast amount of great chain of being compelling evidence in order to sustain the traditional view of the flood. Whether in ignorance or by bureaucratic design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of 12 activities living nhs naturalists a century or more out of date.

Certainly it became increasingly difficult to make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to mount. And, in definition, fact, as the nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in general began to disappear from the scene as Christians began to face the growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to Construct and Allen’s Model, seek ways in which they could affirm both the bureaucratic definition truth of the physical record and the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of Geology. During the first half of the nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Globalisation Tutor2u! Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from natural history, separate from chemistry and physics. Definition! Students of the earth came to with groom, be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Geology developed its own methods of investigation and became less tied to the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of definition orthodox Christian theology.

In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the origin of the earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the lear origin and early history of mankind. [93] Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to bureaucratic, biblical texts. Daughter! Geological inquiry was conducted as if the Scripture were not in existence, and geology no longer provided evidential support for bureaucratic definition a global deluge. Because of the increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of bridal groom London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. The failure of bureaucratic definition individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. At the same time, ordinary Christians seemed to know enough about developments in the field to realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Indeed, many British clergy in particular, including the scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.

In this unsettling context, an tutor2u, invaluable service was performed by bureaucratic theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to earth history and to Essay about validity Model, convince them that, far from posing any threat to Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. These writings, presented in a manner accessible to bureaucratic, Christian clergy and theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives. [94] James R. Moore has argued that the interval between 1832 (the date of the Essay on The Beliefs publication of bureaucratic Lyell's Principles of Geology , which arguably marked the point at which the field of geology was professionalized) and tutor2u, 1860 (the date of the publication of bureaucratic Essays and Reviews , which arguably marked the point at which the Essay on The Beliefs field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the efflorescence'' of definition scriptural geologists and the harmonizers. Great Chain! He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the findings of geologists and biblical scholars to a few conservative theologians, whereas in Great Britain and America it was the definition geologists who did the harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the opinions of three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in London, established his conservative credentials early in his career by challenging German biblical criticism. He was well versed in geology and occasionally wrote on globalisation tutor2u geological topics. [95] A landmark set of Smith's lectures was issued in bureaucratic definition, 1840 under the title On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.

He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. He devoted much of his book to showing the macbeth compatibility of geology and the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the bureaucratic definition restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to great chain, the flood. Smith strongly believed that the definition biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. Adopting an argument that would become a staple of local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is of daily living nhs, put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is reasonable to infer that the definition universal terms in our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of globalisation guilt, whose flagitious character cried for a condign manifestation of Jehovah's displeasure. [96] Smith was convinced of the historicity of the flood, citing the histories and traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the definition universality of historical tradition, and a geographical universality of the deluge itself.

He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the deluge and lear, asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of bureaucratic definition man. Writing before acceptance of the glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the rounding of pebbles and boulders in drift required a very long time of rubbing and grinding by currents, eddies, and tides at globalisation tutor2u, the bottom of the sea. He attributed the blocks of Alpine rocks now found in the Jura mountains as well as gravels and grooves on outcrop surfaces in definition, North America and Europe to several local deluges. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in the northern hemisphere was adverse to globalisation, the admission of a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.

The cindery volcanic cones of the Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the capacity of the ark worked so long as the number of animal species was on definition the order of four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of Natural History; the catalogue of known species at globalisation, that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. Bureaucratic! [97] There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on the ark, said Smith. And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for the transportation of the animals to and from the of king ark. He dismissed a variety of ostensible solutions and in bureaucratic, general expressed ridicule for. the idea of their being brought into one small spot, from the 12 activities living nhs polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the other climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and the thousands of islands; their preservation and definition, provision; and the final disposal of them; without bringing up the bridal with groom hands idea of definition miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Scripture , even what appear appalling in comparison.

The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it. [98] He denounced as fanciful the about validity of Meyer Three scriptural geologies of bureaucratic definition Penn, Fairholme, Young, and Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the flood? The idea of creation and annihilation of the waters was ruled out by the language of Scripture, and we are not at Founding, liberty thus to invent miracles, since the Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of a sudden and violent irruption and presented the idea of a gentle elevation and later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and borne over the awful flood in bureaucratic, a calm and quiet manner.

Smith assumed that the human race had not spread far from Eden. On The Fathers Beliefs! The human population was small and in definition, a course of bridal hands rapid progress towards an extreme reduction, which would have issued in bureaucratic, a not very distant extinction. Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the of king lear Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the inhabited land of central Asia. These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for submerging the district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by a return of the seabed to bureaucratic, its previous level or by uplift of some tracts of land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and Stillingfleet had concluded that the Essay Construct of Meyer and Allen’s Three Model Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of bureaucratic any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the great macbeth flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of bureaucratic definition Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the National Academy of Sciences, and expert on New England geology. [99] On numerous occasions, the bridal with hands geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of definition geology on Christian faith. Of Daily Nhs! According to Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to definition, assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of geology could then be corroborated in revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature. [100] Because Hitchcock wrote for 12 activities nhs theological and ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and definition, pastors.

In one of his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and asking whether geology might not put into chain the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to definition, guard an increasingly professionalized exegesis against daughter lear any infringement of its rights by science, Stuart said that he was unable to see how the discoveries of modern science and of recent date, can determine the meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an organ of Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in three parts in 1837 and 1838. [101] In the first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in bureaucratic, the deluge of Noah because many of the gods and demigods resembled Noah and his sons, the globalisation tutor2u ark was alleged to have been involved in heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in bureaucratic definition, ancient mythology. In the second part, Hitchcock reviewed the history of ideas regarding the historical and great chain, geological deluges. He lamented the fact that some theologians continued to accept the old diluvialism in part because of bureaucratic definition a prevailing ignorance of geology.

What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. He rejoiced that at least some advances toward the truth had been made in the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the product of the deluge, but he failed to understand how Kirby, Penn, and Fairholme could continue to espouse such discredited views. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the fact that he knew very little geology. But while ignorance explained the lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in of daily living nhs, fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the bureaucratic progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the work of Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. Essay About Construct Of Meyer Three Model! Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of geology was obtained mostly by reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of bureaucratic practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to 12 activities living, be quite problematical. He vehemently objected to the practice of accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the changes in the earth's condition to secondary causes.

He repudiated their extravagant theories on the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Bureaucratic Definition! Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the creation and the deluge, and that tertiary and diluvial strata were deposited by the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and these very misty, that were known: and at this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of lear their absurdity, by those who know but few of the details of geology. Bureaucratic! Yet to the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of this science, and which Penn and Fairholme so violently oppose. [102]

Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the creation of man and believed that the daughter lear Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of several extensive deluges could be found and that the last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. Hitchcock lumped the first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the definition Mosaic account did not require that traces of the deluge remain permanently. It would in fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the Essay Founding Fathers Beliefs fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to bureaucratic, have been deposited in quiet water and are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to existing species of animals and plants, and organic remains become more and more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of living nhs strata. If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by bureaucratic definition the agitated waters of a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at 12 activities of daily nhs, the top of the fossiliferous rocks.

Hitchcock saw no escape from the force of the evidence unless one maintained that there was an entirely new creation of species that were mostly different from bureaucratic definition, those destroyed by Essay Fathers Beliefs the deluge. Hitchcock went on to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the surface, abraded the harder parts, and produced thin deposits. But as similar processes have been going on everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of centuries to distinguish diluvial from alluvial action. Bureaucratic Definition! Traces of Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. Essay Construct Validity Component! If so, however the fact argues nothing against the scriptural account. The absence of traces of the biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in bureaucratic, favor of the of king occurrence of such a deluge -- the definition view of the third class of geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of evidence to support the chain of being Bucklandian conclusion that the phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the definition north over the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in a southerly direction from the rocks from which they have been detached. He described a host of on The Founding occurrences of boulders and gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by carrying larger boulders to their present locations. After all, would not a rush of water over our continent from the bureaucratic Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the vast accumulations of diluvial sand and gravel bore the marks of the action of water. Hitchcock attributed the rounding of the boulders to the action of streams that existed prior to the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and of king, grooves with a north-south orientation on definition bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of Essay on The Fathers Beliefs a general deluge in the northern hemisphere in comparatively modern times. Definition! Hitchcock third line of evidence focused on Essay about Construct of Meyer the animal remains found in caverns and fissures. Relying heavily on Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the phenomena in definition, any other way, than by admitting the occurrence of living nhs such a catastrophe. But then he raised the bureaucratic big question. Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by tutor2u Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.

First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Thus the great preponderance of extinct species among the fossils in the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the biblical flood was to wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in definition, flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to escape the chain of being force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the bureaucratic definition arguments against the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in favor.

Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is of being macbeth, derived from definition, geology against the truth of Moses' history of the deluge. To the contrary, there was a presumption in chain, its favor even on bureaucratic the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the Mosaic account was true. After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the argument from biogeography, he argued that the biblical account was true and that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the tutor2u demands of the bureaucratic text. He maintained that appeals to globalisation tutor2u, miracle solved no problems associated with the flood, and definition, commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the theory of validity Three French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the sudden catastrophic uplift of definition mountain chains generated great waves that washed over the continents and 12 activities nhs, that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains. Bureaucratic Definition! [103] If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the of daily Mosaic account of the bureaucratic deluge stands forth fairly and fully vindicated from all collision with the facts of science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the of daily Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to consider the bureaucratic definition matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in Religion of Geology , a work that included a condensation of his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and a conclusion in great of being, which he summarized arguments in favor of a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. Bureaucratic Definition! The problems with universality included the sources of such a vast quantity of water, the difficulty of bridal with groom hands providing for the animals in the ark, the distribution of the bureaucratic definition animals and plants on Essay validity of Meyer and Allen’s the globe after the flood, and definition, the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. No provision was made for seeds on the ark, and so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.

Moreover, the Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only Essay about validity of Meyer and Allen’s Three Component Model a limited portion of bureaucratic definition one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on about Construct Model Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and bureaucratic definition, John Pye Smith for support. Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.

Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the biblical narrative did not seem to be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to modify our exegesis of Scripture. Daughter! He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. And he insisted that the Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Bureaucratic Definition! Hitchcock had not completely swung over to Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to natural theology and harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and clarity of written expression matched by few. In his capacity as editor of Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the Free Church of Scotland during the Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Christian orthodoxy. [104] In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and he honed his talents for geological observation during years in the quarries.

He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the Creator . Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to orthodoxy. Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals. [105] Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into the consciousness of the race.

He did not believe that the universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Construct validity and Allen’s Three Component Model, Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. Definition! More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the Essay Founding shape or the bureaucratic age of the earth or the motions of the heavenly bodies, there was no need to reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the bridal with groom hands Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to definition, signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to as a universal flood.

He also reminded his readers that Poole and Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on globalisation solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to the flood as with respect to other biblical references to matters of physical science, the limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of secular research, historic and scientific. He believed it essential that the church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to deduce from Scripture the figure of the planet had little doubt that the earth was flat until corrected by the geographer; plain men who set themselves to bureaucratic definition, acquire from Scripture some notion of the planetary motions thought that the sun moved around an earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to determine from Scripture the age of the earth were confident that the earth was about six thousand years old until corrected by Essay Founding Beliefs the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to deduce from it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error. [106] And if such error is casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the bureaucratic overall credibility of the Essay validity of Meyer and Allen’s Three church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to think about the impressions an bureaucratic, observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the land or uplift of the seabed. An observer on a boat would be unaware of the cause of of king what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.

The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the definition fountains of the great deep had been broken up for globalisation tutor2u many days. But the observer would depart perilously from his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from a local depression. Miller joined Smith and Hitchcock in discounting the definition old diluvialism. He noted that for fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of daughter of king a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in definition, surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the Essay Beliefs difficulties of that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Bureaucratic Definition! Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the Essay and Allen’s Component Model flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the bureaucratic definition globe on the grounds that the mammoths were now known to Component Model, have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of many extinct species that were once thought to have been transported great distances before being deposited in caves were likewise later determined to have been native to Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Not only had there been many discoveries of new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.

There were, for example, far more species of sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on the ark, a fact overlooked in many of the older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. Bureaucratic! The migration of the wild animals to the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and the burden of proof for such a miracle lay on those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the issue of whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the flood time, Miller noted that of the bridal with groom hands creatures that live on bureaucratic definition vegetables, many are restricted in their food to with groom hands, single plants, which are themselves restricted to limited localities and bureaucratic definition, remote regions of the globe.

Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and other insects lived only upon single plants. Getting all the animals to the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the expedient of having recourse to supposititious miracles in order to get over a difficulty insurmountable on every natural principle, is with groom hands, not of the nature of argument, but simply an evidence of the want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the definition biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium , known only from fossil remains. The kangaroos and wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand.

The problem of the migration of 12 activities of daily species to definition, and from the ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of land and sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia, it is on The Beliefs, just possible that, during the hundred and definition, twenty years in globalisation, which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to where the definition great vessel stood. But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the impulse which led to it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and 12 activities of daily living nhs, Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the bureaucratic definition Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the soil as the mole, the lear hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole. [107] But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.

Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of definition salmon and trout, would not the flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Essay! Few of the definition more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the readings of different theologians?

Since all of natural science was arrayed against chain the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in the exercise of definition miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on the right track. His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of revelation. but with the opponents of Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to the discoveries of the science of geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to think, when they enter on the field of argument with men who for bridal with hands many years have made it a subject of special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from bureaucratic definition, Lyell and Smith, he looked to the sunken basin of the Caspian and Aral Seas in central Asia.

He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the fountains of the great deep as to lay under water an globalisation tutor2u, extensive and populous region. The vast plains around the definition Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is bridal groom hands, now. If the land began gradually to definition, sink, Miller speculated, slowly and equably for forty days together, at the rate of Essay Construct validity of Meyer Three Model about four hundred feet per day, a rate less than twice the rate at which the bureaucratic definition tide rose in the Straits of Magellan, such a rise would render itself only as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. About Three! One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the whole time. Although the rains would add little to the volume of the definition flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and of daily living, would add to the terror by swelling the rivers. Bureaucratic Definition! By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in its centre to the depth of sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. As the contours of its hills and plains would remain as before, the doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the with mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and the last hill-top would have disappeared. [108] Summary of the Popularizers of Geology.

The contemporary church would benefit immensely from a rediscovery of the definition compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to criticism, but it is to tutor2u, their credit that they viewed the definition growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to faith but as an occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. 12 Activities Of Daily Living Nhs! Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to the fact that they were very evidently committed to truth in definition, both the realm of science and the realm of tutor2u faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and bureaucratic, were familiar with the 12 activities of daily leading geological scholarship of the day, and on the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and made good use of formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and wrote popular books for an era that was fascinated by the issues of science and religion. Altogether they made it difficult for their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the fundamentals of geology or to evade its implications for their reading of the biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and bureaucratic definition, well. Articles on the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for example. For the most part the proposals lack empirical control and fail to engage or test the hypotheses of bridal hands other flood geologists. [109] Flood geology has proved to be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and embrace unchecked speculation.

One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the definition flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and animal life not preserved on chain of being the ark and bureaucratic definition, the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the relevance of extrabiblical data, given the fact that such data seem clearly and overwhelmingly to deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of God as the complete and final authority in all such matters and 12 activities of daily living, that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and definition, misleading. And yet the proponents of flood geology have moved in the opposite direction, not only Essay showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to the status of apologetic proof. The issue for flood geologists is bureaucratic definition, not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to daughter of king, biblical interpretation but rather how to interpret that evidence. Having already employed, without benefit of external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to do anything but accept the mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the fossiliferous strata. Bureaucratic! They have thus been forced either to appeal to miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the extrabiblical data to fit their view of what must be true. The appeals to miracle have been made mostly in the context of daughter arguments for a young earth (e.g., in claims that God created the world in such a way that it simply has the appearance of great age). Bureaucratic Definition! The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in valid data or by Essay about Construct of Meyer and Allen’s Three Model the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of science.

The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to deluge traditions, and to stratigraphy and definition, paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and of being macbeth, Morris (authors of definition The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to address the serious problems posed by biogeography and anthropology. The few flood geologists who have sought to Construct Three, deal with stratigraphic and paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in those fields. Bureaucratic Definition! Most have lacked substantial experience in 12 activities, field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and have generally tended to view geological data in bureaucratic, a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. [110] Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in the imagination than in God's creation.

They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of tutor2u science, and then they propose that these real facts constitute an bureaucratic, apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted. Of King! [111] In the process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from bureaucratic, any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and great of being macbeth, salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and a bit suspicious of definition higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to educate the laity about the degree to which flood geologists have failed in both their understanding and their treatment of scientific data and technical literature, the latter have been able to exert an unwarranted force in evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in of daily living nhs, following the definition flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of information that might have served to living, correct the errors. If flood geologists and evangelicals really want to bureaucratic definition, be serious about heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in the twentieth century. As we have seen, the idea of a universal deluge was the settled interpretation of the church for nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. The cumulative pressure of general revelation can be ignored only so long.

Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to tell us something! This case study of the flood suggests the need for more humility and less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is bridal with, appalling. Christians must also be cautious in using extrabiblical data for bureaucratic definition apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. There is danger in basing an apologetic for our interpretations on a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an 12 activities of daily living, attitude and definition, a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the Essay validity Three Component discoveries that are made in God's world. In response to the growing body of evidence regarding the flood, many Christian scholars seem to definition, have waited until the last possible moment to accept the daughter idea of a local flood.

Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in a global flood by resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. It is, of course, easy to find fault in hindsight. And as the bureaucratic definition church has been singed from time to time by overeager scholars who have rushed to construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of evidence, some caution is understandable. It is also understandable that long-held traditional ways of interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is actually saying, and, of course, the church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is saying! And yet many Christians have come to dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in Essay on The Beliefs, them a threat to the authority of the Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into definition a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is hands, composed not just of opponents of Christianity but also of confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in contrasting the infallible Word of bureaucratic God (that is to say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by them) with the fallible ideas of sinful human beings and on that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and human sin. But does the Bible oppose everything human? Science is bridal, a human endeavor that requires the input of bureaucratic definition fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is anti-Christian, and it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and using the of Meyer and Allen’s Three Component results of science.

Even the definition most doctrinaire advocates of a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to the findings of the scientific community. How many of daughter lear them deny that the earth orbits the sun rather than the other way around, for example? How many object to the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to bureaucratic definition, the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of worldviews are able to with groom, achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of bureaucratic evidence, we had better pay attention. When for Essay Founding the past two centuries thousands of geologists from around the world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from a lifetime of experience in looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.

Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of their commitment to a principle of interpretation might do well to question their commitment to definition, truth in a larger sense. Is it likely that they will arrive at a sound understanding of what God is saying in the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is chain macbeth, saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to the flood have been pushing the bureaucratic definition evangelical church to develop a better approach to the flood story and indeed to all the great of being early chapters of Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of effort to locate physical remnants of the bureaucratic biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to bridal groom, have a different explanation. Bureaucratic! The idea that the flood deposited the world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by numerous lines of 12 activities of daily living evidence. Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.

Many strata, such as lake deposits and definition, fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by 12 activities living nhs fossil soils and separated from definition, higher strata by erosional breaks that could only bridal groom hands have been produced over extensive lengths of time. The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in the geologic column. Many of the bureaucratic definition organisms lived in bridal groom, environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Radiometric dating of definition volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. Some large masses of igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of daughter thousands of years to bureaucratic definition, cool and crystallize. Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by a flood. The views of Essay on The Founding Beliefs earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.

Price, Whitcomb and Morris, and John R. Rice are simply and obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against bureaucratic definition views that confine the action of the flood to the globe's surface features. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and surface grooves and on The, scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of continental ice sheets rather than a flood. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in a major catastrophe only a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. Definition! These animals were well adapted to Fathers, life on the harsh tundra and bureaucratic, died individually over a period of thousands of years in accidents that were catastrophic only to them.

The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and bridal with, the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at bureaucratic definition, all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of downslope soil movements during the ice age. The views of the deluge propounded by Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of geological evidence opposing the possibility of a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against such an event. For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by a catastrophic global flood at great of being macbeth, any point in the past. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of bureaucratic points around the with groom hands globe into definition the exceedingly distant past.

Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in Australia for at least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the textual evidence of the Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to on The Founding, presume that representatives of tens of thousands of definition different species left their natural habitats and restricted supplies of food, made their way from all the distant and isolated parts of the globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of creatures somehow all boarded the with groom hands craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to bureaucratic, sustain them for living nhs a year, and then after the definition retreat of the macbeth floodwaters all made the journey back to bureaucratic definition, their respective habitats to replenish the earth. Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the species in of daily living nhs, the fossil record, including dozens of species of dinosaurs , were also aboard the definition ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to Essay on The Beliefs, entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to know about life, I learned from Noah's Ark. (a) Don't miss the bureaucratic boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the Ark. Bridal With Groom! (d) Stay fit.

When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. Bureaucratic! (e) Don't listen to critics. Just get on with the job that needs to be done. (f) Build your future on high ground. Globalisation! (g) For safety's sake, travel in pairs. (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. The snails were on board with the cheetahs. Bureaucratic Definition! (i) When you're stressed, float a while. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs, the Titanic by professionals. (k) No matter the storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to find an interpretation of the text that does not commit us to a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to a better understanding. Doesn't the fact that the living text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to describe local events of great significance such as the famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to suppose that the flood account uses hyperbolic language to definition, describe an event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the 12 activities of daily nhs integrity of the biblical text to suppose that the biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in order to definition, make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and obedience and Construct and Allen’s Three Component Model, divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by clinging to failed interpretations of the Bible and refusing to definition, explore new directions. Globalisation! Christian scholars have an obligation to lead the way toward a renewed reverence for God's truth wherever it can be found.

Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to bureaucratic definition, enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and theology but also such fields as the natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to investigate the intricacies of God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and 12 activities of daily living, God's works will be forthcoming. If the fruits of that improved understanding are to be communicated to the Christians in the pew, their preachers will have to do the communicating. And this means that the theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on bureaucratic matters in those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on the theologians and exegetes would work side by Essay validity and Allen’s Three Component side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and paleontologists! In a world of burgeoning knowledge about ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and customs as well as about the workings of God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to bureaucratic, want to influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of great of being macbeth holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the bureaucratic dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).

Davis A. Young , evangelical Christian geologist from Calvin College. [1] Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell) [2] Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745). [3] See the journal entry for January 1770 in The Works of John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386. [4] Gill, An Exposition of the Founding Fathers Beliefs Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. H. Collingridge, 1852), p. Bureaucratic Definition! 42-45. [6] Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832). [7] For an extended review of the interpretations of of daily living selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Young, Scripture in the Hands of Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34. [8] Bellers, A Description of the Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at definition, the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Essay on The Fathers Beliefs Royal Society of London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in the Coal-Mines of Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the Strata in Coal-Mines, etc. Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634. [9] E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the Strata Met with in bureaucratic, Digging for Marle, and great chain of being macbeth, of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.

[10] Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the historical development of various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology; The Foundations of definition a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987). [11] Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740). [12] Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759). [13] Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Bridal With! Petersburg, 1777). [14] Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per definition, Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209. [15] On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

[16] Werner, ed. Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970). [17] Hutton, Theory of the Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795). [18] De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and a French Missionary on great of being macbeth the Diminution of the Sea , ed. Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1968). See also Albert V. Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the Earth, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Bureaucratic Definition! Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99. [19] Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).

[20] For a brief discussion of Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). For detail on Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and globalisation, His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California, 1983). [21] Werner, Brief Classification and bureaucratic definition, Description of the Various Rocks . [22] Sloane, An Account of Elephants' Teeth and Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 35 (1728): 457-71; and on The Founding Fathers, Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514. [23] E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in Some Grounds of Mr. Bureaucratic! John Somner's in Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893. [24] For more extended discussions of the early discoveries of vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and the ways in which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in John C. Greene's The Death of Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and Essay, Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and the Deluge: Some Ideas on definition Earth History in the Royal Society of London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39. [25] Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. Freeman, 1706).

[26] I. P. Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Essay Founding Mammoth and bureaucratic, Rhinoceros Found in the Frozen Ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24. [27] Frere, Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of daughter of king lear human artifacts and their significance, see Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983). [28] Kirwan, On the bureaucratic Primitive State of the on The Founding Beliefs Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. For a general look at bureaucratic definition, neptunism and the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and Thought 100 (1972): 143-158. [29] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and living nhs, Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 288. [30] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 293. [31] Browne, Secular Ark , p. 16-23; and Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work . [33] Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Haak, 1777). For an analysis of bureaucratic definition Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at the End of the Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57. [34] Playfair, Illustrations of the of daily living Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an overview of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and bureaucratic, Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).

[35] For a review of the transition from cosmogony to geology, see Martin J. S. Great Chain Of Being Macbeth! Rudwick, The Shape and bureaucratic definition, Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321. [36] De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Observations and tutor2u, Researches the Results of Which May Serve as the Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps. [37] See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and definition, Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). [38] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr., trans. Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe. [39] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.

[40] Greenough, A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819). [41] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154. [42] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the Revolutions of the Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212. [43] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. Nhs! 186. [44] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196. [45] Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of bureaucratic Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 60. [46] Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. 23-24. [47] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geology of England and Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. The introduction dealing with the relationship between geology and revealed religion was written specifically by Conybeare. [48] For a reproduction of great chain Conybeare's caricature of Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the bureaucratic Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in Essay Fathers Beliefs, History, Humanity, and bureaucratic, Evolution , ed.

James R. Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 245. [49] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Action of an Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Great Chain! Albritton Jr. Bureaucratic Definition! (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. iii. [50] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 223. [51] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 1-2. [52] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. Of King Lear! 51. [53] Buckland, Geology and bureaucratic definition, Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).

[54] Daubeny, On the Volcanoes of Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356. [55] On the Essay Construct of Meyer and Allen’s Component Model early life of bureaucratic Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Fulton and Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Schuman, 1947). [56] Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the deluge.

[57] Fleming, On the Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the bridal with Influence of Society on the Distribution of British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305. [58] Fleming, The Geological Deluge. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239. [59] See George P. Bureaucratic Definition! Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the daughter of king lear Volcanic Formations of Auvergne, the Velay and the Vivarais (London, 1827), and Charles Lyell and bureaucratic, Roderick I. Murchison, On the Excavation of Valleys, as Illustrated by the Volcanic Rocks of Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. For a valuable discussion of the Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Essay about Construct of Meyer Three Model Auvergne: Lyellian Time and Political Economy, British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1974): 205-242.

[60] Sedgwick, Address to the Geological Society, Proceedings of the bureaucratic definition Geological Society of London 1 (1831): 313-314. Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the Origin of Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of validity and Allen’s Three Component Model Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and bureaucratic definition, On Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and Dalesman: A Biography in Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982). [61] Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the Geological Society of groom hands London 2 (1838): 42-70. [62] Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. 270-74. See also James R. Moore, Charles Lyell and the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160. [63] The term Pleistocene epoch was used to definition, refer to the time when the latest surficial deposits were deposited on daughter lear top of older rocks.

[64] For more detailed discussion of the first proposals concerning the effects of glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of definition London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science (Chicago: University of about of Meyer and Allen’s Component Chicago Press, 1960), p. 96-106; and Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 96-107. [65] For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. N. Berry, The Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987). [66] For detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and definition, the establishment of the Devonian time period, see Martin J. S. Globalisation Tutor2u! Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985). [67] For further detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). [68] On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). For additional insight into the career of Murchison and the development of both the Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Bureaucratic Definition! Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [69] For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. Daughter! J. Snelling, The Chronology of the Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and Walter B. Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [70] Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in definition, Woodward's History of the Geological Society of London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of Adrian J. Essay Validity Component! Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Definition! Delair and W. A. S. Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25. [71] See Adrian J. Daughter Of King! Desmond, Archetypes and Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). [72] Owen, quoted by Robert W. Bureaucratic! Howard in The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. 136.

[73] See Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. Daughter Of King Lear! 42-50. [74] Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the definition Strata and Fossils Occuring between the chain Humber and the Tees, from the German Ocean to the Plain of York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to bureaucratic, the Study of great of being Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the bureaucratic Earth, in Which the Mosaic Account of the Creation and the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and tutor2u, Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Avon (Bristol, 1822). [75] Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. 76-77. Penn gave evidence of a similar certainty about God's strategy in creating and ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of definition all the Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the bridal groom Commencement of History to the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811). [76] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336. [77] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.

[78] Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits, and Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. Definition! 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835). [79] Fairholme, New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and of being macbeth, Period of the Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. 408-410. [80] Fairholrne, New and Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237. [81] On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969). [82] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (NY: G. Lane, 1846), p. Definition! 66-82. [83] Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark. [84] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Essay Construct validity and Allen’s, Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. (London: Rivington, 1830), p. Bureaucratic! 323. [85] See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838). [86] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).

This volume is an on The Fathers, English translation of the 1837 German edition. [87] Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at the Inauguration of the definition Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Essay on The Founding Beliefs Presbyterian Church, in definition, the United States of America, to Which Are Added the Professor's Inaugural Address and the Charge to the Professor and Students [NY: J. Seymour, 1812). Most of the inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983). [88] Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and Evidence of Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). The cited material appears in an. excerpt from the Essay about validity of Meyer Three Model lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.

On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983). [89] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. 326. [90] Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament , pp. 20-21. [91] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch , p. 113. [92] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible , p. 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament , p. 21. [93] Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and bureaucratic, Ronald L. Of King! Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.

[94] Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and bureaucratic, Nature , p. 322-350. [95] On Smith's life see J. Medway, Memoirs of the 12 activities nhs Life and Writings of bureaucratic definition John Pye Smith (London, 1853). [96] Smith, On the Relation between the great of being macbeth Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Bureaucratic! Appleton, 1840), p. 98. [97] Smith, On the globalisation Relation , p. Bureaucratic! 136-137. [98] Smith, On the Relation , p. Daughter Of King! 252-253. [99] For analyses of definition Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin: The Case of Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.

For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. 51-101. [100] Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. 530. [101] Hitchcock's initial contributions to chain, his exchange with Stuart included the definition following articles: The Connection between Geology and Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and globalisation tutor2u, 6 (1835): 261-332; and Remarks on Professor Stuart's Examination of Gen. Bureaucratic! 1 in Reference to of king, Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Bureaucratic Definition! Stuart wrote Critical Examination of Some Passages in Gen. 1; with Remarks on Founding Fathers Difficulties That Attend Some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the issues appeared under the title The Historical and definition, Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27. [102] Hitchcock, The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, p. 109.

[103] On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). [104] On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and Order: A Biography and Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981). [105] Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and The Testimony of the hands Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858). [106] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. Bureaucratic Definition! 305-306. [107] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.

[108] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , pp. 356-359. [109] See, e.g., D. Of King Lear! Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and Robert Kofahl, Could the Flood Waters Have Come from a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206. [110] See Howard J. Van Till, Davis A. Bureaucratic! Young, and Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of Missing Rock, which explores the failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and geological literature, using the globalisation tutor2u Grand Canyon as a case study.

[111] See James R. Moore, Interpreting the New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.