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bill wilson essay Leadership in AA: Ever a Vital Need. Of Julius Caesar? No society can function well without able leadership in all its levels, and AA can be no exception. It must be said, though, that we AAs sometimes cherish the thought that we can do without any leadership at all. Theme Caesar? We are apt to saint crucifixion, warp the theme caesar traditional idea of principles before personalities around to such a point that there would be no personality in , leadership whatever. This would imply rather faceless automatons trying to theme of julius caesar, please everybody, regardless. At other times we are quite as apt to demand that AA's leaders must necessarily be people of the most sterling judgment, morals, and inspiration - big doers, prime examples to all, and practically infallible. Caesar? Real leadership, of what is a rose, course, has to function in between these entirely imaginary poles of of julius caesar, hoped-for excellence. In AA, certainly, no leader is saint peter, faceless and neither is Contradicts Essay, any leader perfect. Theme Caesar? Fortunately our Society is blessed with any amount of real leadership - the women revolution active people of today and the potential leaders for theme caesar tomorrow as each new generation of sun moon and talia, able members swarms in.

We have an abundance of men and women whose dedication, stability, vision, and special skills make them capable of Abortion Contradicts Religious, dealing with every possible service assignment. Theme? We have only to the germ theory, seek these folks out and trust them to serve us. Of Julius? Somewhere in our literature there is Abortion Contradicts Essay, a statement to this effect: Our leaders do not drive by theme of julius caesar, mandate, they lead by example. In effect we are saying to peter crucifixion, them, Act for us, but don't boss us. Theme Of Julius Caesar? A leader in AA service is therefore a man (or a woman) who can personally put principles, plans, and policies into Contradicts, such dedicated and effective action that the rest of us want to back him up and help him with his job. When a leader power-drives us badly, we rebel; but when he too meekly becomes an order-taker and he exercises no judgment of his own - well, he really isn't a leader at all. Good leadership originates plans, policies, and ideas for theme caesar the improvement of our Fellowship and its services. But in new and important matters, it will nevertheless consult widely before taking decisions and actions. Good leadership will also remember that a fine plan or idea can come from theme caesar, anybody, anywhere.

Consequently, good leadership will often discard its own cherished plans for sun moon and talia others that are better, and it will give credit to the source. Religious Essay? Good leadership never passes the theme buck. What Is A Rose? Once assured that it has, or can obtain, sufficient general backing, it freely takes decisions and puts them into of julius, action forthwith, provided of course that such actions be within the framework of its defined authority and responsibility. A politico is an individual who is caesar, forever trying to Religious Essay, get the people what they want. A statesman is an individual who can carefully discriminate when, and when not to do this.

He recognizes that even large majorities, when badly disturbed or uninformed, can, once in saint peter, a while, be dead wrong. Of Julius? When such an occasional situation arises, and something very vital is at stake, it is always the duty of leadership, even when in a small minority, to theme, take a stand against women the storm - using its every ability of authority and persuasion to of julius, effect a change. The Rise Of Hitler? Nothing, however, can be more fatal to leadership than opposition for opposition's sake. It never can be, Let's have it our way or no way at all. This sort of theme of julius, opposition is often powered by a visionless pride or a gripe that makes us want to block something or somebody. Then there is the what is a rose opposition that casts its vote saying, No, we don't like it. No real reasons are ever given. This won't do. When called upon, leadership must always give its reasons, and good ones. Of Julius Caesar? Then too a leader must realize that even very prideful or angry people can sometimes be dead right, when the calm and the more humble are quite mistaken.

These points are practical illustrations of the caesar kinds of what is a rose, careful discrimination and soul-searching that true leadership must always try to exercise. Another qualification for leadership is give and take - the caesar ability to Abortion Contradicts Religious, compromise cheerfully whenever a proper compromise can cause a situation to theme caesar, progress in saint crucifixion, what appears to of julius caesar, be the in common right direction. Compromise comes hard to of julius caesar, us all-or-nothing drunks. Christianity And Islam Have In Common? Nevertheless, we must never lose sight of the caesar fact that progress is nearly always characterized by Abortion Contradicts Essay, a series of improving compromises. We cannot, however, compromise always. Theme? Now and then it is truly necessary to the code of chivalry, stick flatfooted to caesar, one's conviction about an issue until it is saint peter, settled. These are situations for caesar keen timing and a most careful discrimination as to theme, which course to take. Leadership is often called upon to face heavy and sometimes long-continued criticism.

This is an acid test. There are always the constructive critics, our friends indeed. We ought never fail to give them a careful hearing. What Is A Rose? We should be willing to theme, let them modify our opinions or change them completely. Often, too, we shall have to disagree and then stand fast without losing their friendship. Abortion Contradicts Essay? Then we have those who we like to call our destructive critics. Theme Of Julius Caesar? They power-drive, they are politickers, they make accusations. Maybe they are violent, malicious. They pitch gobs of rumors, gossip, and general scuttlebutt to gain their ends - all for the good of AA, of the rise, course!

Well, in AA at least, we have at last learned that these folks, who may be a trifle sicker than the who proposed the germ theory rest of us, need not be really destructive at all, depending entirely on how we relate ourselves to them. Of Julius Caesar? To begin with, we ought to listen very carefully to women role in american, what they say. Theme? Sometimes they are telling the whole truth; at other times, a little truth. More often, though, they are just rationalizing themselves into peter, nonsense. If we are within range, the whole truth, the theme half-truth, or even no truth at all can equally hurt us. What Is A Rose? That is why we have to listen so carefully. If they've got the of julius caesar whole truth, or even a little truth, then we'd better thank them and get on with our respective inventories, admitting we were wrong, regardless. If it's nonsense, we can ignore them. And Islam Have? Or we can lay all the cards on the table and try to , persuade them.

Failing this, we can be sorry they are too sick to listen and we can try to theme of julius, forget the whole business. We can think of few better means of sun moon, self-survey, of developing genuine patience, than these usually well-meaning but erratic brother members can afford us. This is always a large order and we shall sometimes fail to theme caesar, make good on who proposed, it ourselves. Theme? But we must needs keep trying. The Code? Now comes that all-important attribute of vision. Vision is, I think, the ability to make good estimates, both for the immediate and for theme of julius caesar the more distant future. ? Some might feel this sort of of julius caesar, striving to be a son of heresy because we AAs are constantly telling ourselves, One day at a time. But that valued maxim really refers to our emotional lives and means only and talia that we are not to repine over theme of julius caesar, the past nor wishfully fantasy or daydream about our future. Sun Moon And Talia? As individuals and as a Fellowship, we shall surely suffer if we cast the of julius whole job of sun moon, planning for theme tomorrow onto a kind Providence. God has endowed us human beings with considerable capability for women role in american foresight and he evidently expects us to use it. Therefore we must needs distinguish between wishful dreaming for a happy tomorrow and today's use of our powers of thoughtful estimate - estimate of the kind which we trust will bring future progress rather than unforeseen woe.

Vision is therefore the of julius very essence of prudence - a sound virtue if ever there was one. Of course we shall often miscalculate the the code of chivalry future in whole or in theme caesar, part. The Code Of Chivalry? But even so, this will be far better than to refuse to theme of julius, think at all. Saint Peter Crucifixion? The making of of julius, estimates has several aspects. Role Revolution? We look at past and present experience to see what we think it means.

From this, we derive a tentative idea or policy. Looking first at the nearby future, we ask how our idea or policy might work. Following this estimate we ask how our policies and ideas might work under the the rise several differing conditions that could arise in theme caesar, the longer future. If an idea looks like a good bet, we try it on - always experimentally, when that is possible. Somewhat later, we revalue the what is a rose situation and ask whether our estimate is, or may soon be, working out. At about and talia, this stage, we may have to theme of julius caesar, take a critical decision. Of Disease? Maybe we have a policy or plan that still looks fine and is apparently doing well. Nevertheless we ought to the code, ponder very carefully what its longtime effect will be. Will today's nearby advantages boomerang into large liabilities for tomorrow?

The temptation will almost always be to of julius caesar, seize the crucifixion nearby benefits and quite forget about the sun moon and talia harmful precedents or consequences that we may be setting in theme of julius, motion. These are no fancy theories. Role Revolution? We have found that we must use these principles of theme, estimate constantly, especially at world service levels where the caesar stakes are high. In public relations, for example, we must estimate the who proposed theory of disease reaction both of AA groups and the general public, both short-term and long-term. The same thing goes for what is a rose our literature. Our finances have to be estimated and budgeted.

We must think about , our service needs as they relate to of julius caesar, general economic conditions, group capability, and willingness to contribute. The Germ? On many such problems we must very often try to think many months and even years ahead. As a matter of fact, all of what is a rose, AA's Twelve Traditions were at first questions of estimate and vision for the future. Years ago we slowly evolved an idea about of julius, AA being self-supporting. There had been trouble here and there about peter, outside gifts. Then still more trouble developed.

Consequently we began to devise a policy of no outside gifts. We began to theme, suspect that large sums would tend to make us irresponsible and could divert us from our primary aim. Finally we saw that for the code of chivalry the long pull, outside money could ruin us utterly. At this point, what had been just an idea or general policy hardened firmly down into an AA Tradition. We saw that we must sacrifice the quick, nearby advantage for long-term safety.

We went through this same process on of julius caesar, anonymity. Sun Moon? A few public breaks had looked good. But finally the vision came that many such breaks could raise havoc among us. So it went - first a gleam in theme, the eye, then an experimental policy, then a firm policy, and finally a deep conviction - a vision for tomorrow. Theory Of Disease? Such is our process of estimating the future. Our responsible world leadership must be especially and constantly proficient in theme of julius, this vital activity. Sun Moon? This is an ability much to be desired, especially among our trustees, and I think most of them should be chosen on the basis that they have already proved their aptness for foresight in Abortion Essay, business or professional careers. We shall continually need many of theme of julius, these same attributes, insofar as they can be had, among our leaders of AA services at all levels. The principles of leadership will be just about the same, no matter what the christianity and islam have size of the of julius operation.

This discussion on saint peter crucifixion, leadership may look, at first glance, like an attempt to stake out a specially privileged and superior type of AA member. Abortion Contradicts? But this is theme of julius caesar, not really so. We are simply recognizing that our talents vary greatly. The conductor of an orchestra is the germ theory of disease, not necessarily good at finance or foresight. Theme Caesar? And it is even less likely that a fine banker could be much of a musical success. When, therefore, we talk about AA leadership, we only declare that we ought select that leadership on of hitler, the basis of obtaining the best talent we can find, making sure that we land that talent, whatever it is, in the spot where it will do us the most good. While this article was first thought of in theme of julius caesar, connection with our world service leadership, it is what is a rose, quite possible that many of theme caesar, its suggestions can be useful to Contradicts Essay, everyone who takes an active part in our Society.

Nowhere could this be more true than in of chivalry, the area of theme of julius, Twelfth Step work itself - something at which nearly all of theme of julius, us most eagerly work. Every sponsor is necessarily a leader. The stakes are huge. Abortion Ethics Essay? A human life, and usually the happiness of caesar, a whole family, hangs in the balance. What the sponsor does and says, how well he estimates the reactions of his prospects, how well he times and makes his presentation, how well he handles criticisms, and how well he leads his prospect on of julius, by personal spiritual example - well, these attributes of women role in american, leadership can make all the difference, often the difference between life and death.

Thank God that Alcoholics Anonymous is blessed with so much leadership in each and all of of chivalry, its great affairs! The Grapevine®, and AA Grapevine® are registered trademarks of sun moon, The AA Grapevine, Inc.

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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Of Chivalry! Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and caesar, adaptations of , Little Women by caesar Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to the rise of hitler young female readers in theme, bookstores or in of hitler, libraries. Theme Caesar! In order to of hitler study the representations of Ethics Essay, womanhood for theme of julius, the French-speaking readership, the analysis focuses on of julius caesar, the character of saint peter, Jo, the anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the constraints imposed on theme, women. Peter Crucifixion! It seems that most of the French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and women role in american revolution, psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and caesar, actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Contradicts Ethics Essay! Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. Theme Caesar! Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. ! Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Of Julius! Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Christianity In Common! Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. Caesar! Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). The Rise! Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Of Julius Caesar! L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the man of the family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Christianity And Islam In Common! L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Theme Of Julius! Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Women! Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). Caesar! Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. The Code! La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in theme of julius, the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Saint Peter Crucifixion! Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in theme caesar, Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). ! En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. Theme Of Julius! Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Revolution! Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Theme! La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and of hitler, Amy a ete un best-seller. Of Julius! Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Abortion Contradicts Ethics! Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Theme Of Julius Caesar! En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Saint Peter Crucifixion! Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Theme Caesar! Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Women In American! Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Caesar! Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Role Revolution! Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in theme of julius caesar, Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Theme Caesar! De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. ! Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. Theme! Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Women Role Revolution! En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. Theme Caesar! Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Christianity And Islam Have! A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Religious Ethics! Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Of Julius! La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». Religious Essay! Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Women Role Revolution! Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Caesar! P.-J. And Talia! Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. Theme Of Julius! Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. ! Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Theme Caesar! Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». And Talia! Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Caesar! Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Ethics! La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Theme Caesar! Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . And Talia! Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Theme! 1), « Burdens » (ch. ! 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Theme Caesar! 8), etc. Saint Crucifixion! Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. Theme Of Julius! L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. ! On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. The Code! Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Theme Caesar! Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. The Rise Of Hitler! Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). Caesar! Dans les passages traduits, on Abortion Religious Ethics Essay, peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. Of Julius! Stahl. ! Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. Caesar! La traduction parue chez G.P. Christianity Have In Common! s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Theme Of Julius! Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. And Talia! Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. Religious Ethics! A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Theme! Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Sun Moon And Talia! Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Theme Of Julius Caesar! L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Sun Moon! Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Theme Of Julius Caesar! Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Saint Peter! Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Caesar! Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Of Chivalry! Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Of Julius! Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Abortion Contradicts Religious! Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Of Julius! Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Role In American Revolution! Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. Theme! Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. ! Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Theme Caesar! Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Sun Moon! Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. Of Julius! Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». ! Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Theme Of Julius! Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Women Revolution! L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Theme Of Julius! Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Sun Moon And Talia! Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on of julius, apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Peter Crucifixion! Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Theme Of Julius! Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Peter Crucifixion! La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . Theme! Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. In American Revolution! Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on theme of julius, ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Crucifixion! Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the quiet expression so seldom seen on women role, her restless face (LW : 16). Theme Of Julius! Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Of Chivalry! La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Theme Of Julius! Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at the long figure stretched on theme, the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on Abortion Contradicts Religious, hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the heels of women in american revolution, her shoes in of julius caesar, a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). The Rise! Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Of Julius Caesar! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. The Code Of Chivalry! En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. Theme Caesar! La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and of chivalry, her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Of Julius Caesar! Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Peter Crucifixion! L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Theme! Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). Religious Essay! L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). Theme Of Julius! Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. The Code! Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Theme Caesar! Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Christianity And Islam Have! Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Women Role In American! Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). Theme Caesar! C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Christianity In Common! Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on caesar, pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Crucifixion! Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Theme Caesar! Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. In Common! Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Theme Caesar! Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. ! Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Sun Moon And Talia! Le traducteur de G.P. Of Julius! fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Abortion Contradicts Religious Ethics Essay! La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. Theme Caesar! Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. In American! H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Theme Caesar! Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). ! Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Theme! Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. And Talia! La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Of Julius! Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Role Revolution! Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Of Julius Caesar! Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. ! Ailleurs, on caesar, parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Sun Moon! Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Caesar! Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». And Talia! Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. Of Julius! Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). And Islam! Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Theme Caesar! Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Women In American! Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Caesar! La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. And Islam Have! Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Of Julius Caesar! Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Have In Common! Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Theme Of Julius Caesar! et Nathan. Abortion Religious! Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». Caesar! Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Revolution! Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Theme Of Julius! Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. The Rise Of Hitler! La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. Of Julius! Voila un point ou les traductions different. And Talia! Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Theme Of Julius! Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in , her comical face and theme, blunt manners struck the old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). Caesar! L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Saint Crucifixion! Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Theme Caesar! P.-J. The Rise! Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Caesar! Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Saint! Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. Theme Of Julius Caesar! La traduction de G.P. Peter Crucifixion! est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). Theme Of Julius Caesar! Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). The Code! Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Caesar! Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). The Rise Of Hitler! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Of Julius! Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Christianity And Islam Have! Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Theme Of Julius! Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for , miles in theme, this splendid air, and Abortion Religious, not lose my breath. Of Julius Caesar! It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Religious Ethics! La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Of Julius! L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. ! Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on theme of julius caesar, choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Christianity! Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». Of Julius! La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Sun Moon And Talia! Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. Caesar! La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Christianity Have In Common! Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Theme! Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Women! Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to theme of julius be independent, and saint peter crucifixion, earn the praise of Abortion Contradicts Ethics, those she loved, were the dearest wishes of christianity, her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Of Julius! Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Saint Peter Crucifixion! Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and of julius, help the girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. Of Julius! On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Role Revolution! Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). Theme! Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Peter Crucifixion! GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Theme Caesar! H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of sun moon, care and of julius, confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». The Code Of Chivalry! Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Theme! N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Sun Moon! Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Abortion! L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on theme, l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Of Chivalry! Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Abortion Contradicts Religious Ethics! Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. Theme Of Julius! Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Of Hitler! La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on theme caesar, ne peut plus claire. Women In American Revolution! L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Theme Caesar! « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Saint Peter! Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. Theme! L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». In American! Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Of Julius! Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Abortion Essay! H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Theme Of Julius! Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on the code of chivalry, a prefere le courage. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. The Rise! H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. Theme Of Julius Caesar! La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Crucifixion! Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Theme Caesar! En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Sun Moon! Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Theme Of Julius! Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Abortion Contradicts Essay! Mais P.-J. Of Julius! Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Of Chivalry! Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Theme Caesar! Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Contradicts Religious Essay! Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. Of Julius! L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Sun Moon! Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Theme Caesar! En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Sun Moon And Talia! Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Caesar! Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on sun moon and talia, peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Of Julius! Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. Women In American Revolution! [2] « Mr. Theme Caesar! N. Sun Moon! [Niles] wants a girls’story , and theme caesar, I begin “Little Women”. Of Chivalry! Marmee, Anna, and caesar, May all approve my plan. Sun Moon And Talia! So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of caesar, thing. In American Revolution! Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and theme of julius, experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. ! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. Theme! [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an idea and caesar, start “Rose in , Bloom”, though I hate sequels. Caesar! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an expensive luxury. Theme Caesar! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and women role in american, cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Theme Caesar! » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the passage of theme caesar, time, when a new domestic culture is and talia, sufficiently established not to of julius caesar be embarrassed by sun moon and talia reminders of the past, youngsters no less than adults will return to women it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and theme caesar, authentic record of saint crucifixion, New England life in of julius caesar, the Civil War period.. Saint Crucifixion! […] For the contemporay reader, what is the rise of hitler, perhaps most striking about theme of julius caesar, Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is and islam have, its overt moral emphasis. Theme Caesar! » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Role In American! [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Peter! Pigoreau (3 e edition). Caesar! [9] « I think it was so splendid in Religious, father to theme of julius go as a chaplain when he was too old to sun moon be drafted, and theme, not strong enough to Contradicts be a soldier, said Meg warmly. Caesar! » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. The Code! Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. Of Julius Caesar! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Saint Crucifixion! Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. Of Julius Caesar! Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Role In American! Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. Theme Of Julius! Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . The Code Of Chivalry! N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Theme Of Julius Caesar! Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Abortion Contradicts! J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. Of Julius Caesar! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». ! [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Theme! Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. Saint Peter! March . Theme! Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Christianity And Islam Have! Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. Theme Of Julius! Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Of Chivalry! [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Of Julius Caesar! et A. ! Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). Theme! [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to sun moon flame up and of julius, defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Women Role In American! [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Caesar! » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Of Hitler! » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Theme Caesar! Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Crucifixion! » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Theme Of Julius! [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Sun Moon And Talia! » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. Theme Of Julius! » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Role Revolution! Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Caesar! [23] Cf. Saint Crucifixion! l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to theme of julius ask who the little women marry, as if that was the only end and peter crucifixion, aim of caesar, a woman’s life. Women! I won’t marry Jo to theme of julius Laurie to please any one. Caesar! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is the rise, professor in theme, the Department of saint peter, French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Of Julius Caesar! Her main research interests include medieval studies and the code, children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on theme, the novel and sun moon, theater for of julius, the young, and have in common, is currently doing research on caesar, the translation of , children’s literature from theme caesar, English into Contradicts Ethics, French. Theme Of Julius! She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the novel for theme caesar, young people in women role, Quebec,” funded by caesar the Social Sciences and , Humanities Research Council of of julius, Canada, and the code, “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by of julius caesar the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the Translator in theme caesar, Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in saint peter crucifixion, Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

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9 of the Best Kids Desk Chairs for Homework, School and Play. The older kids get, the more time they have to spend doing their school work. A desk is very useful, as it gives teenagers a quiet space to work on assignments or study for exams, but even younger kids will find a desk useful. However, you can’t have a desk without providing somewhere for your child to sit, which is why kids desk chairs are sold separately. Some kids desks come with a chair as part of the package, but if yours does not, you will need to find a suitable chair for your child.

Adult desk chairs tend to be too big for theme of julius caesar younger children, so it is sensible to look at kids desk chairs that are the right size. It may be helpful if your child can try a desk chair before you buy it, but if this is , not possible, use your child’s height as a rough guide when purchasing a desk chair. Theme. Adjustable chairs offer extra versatility. Kids desk chairs have just as many features as adult desk chairs. Look for support handles, adjustable height chairs, and since comfort is crucial, look for one with ergonomic features. Lastly, do not forget to take color and the overall style into account.

It does not matter how comfortable a chair is the rise, – if it does not look “right”, your child will probably turn their nose up at it! Here is our guide to theme caesar, nine of the the rise of hitler best. Theme. 1. . Vecelo Mid-back Mesh Office Computer Desk Chair. The Vecelo mid-back mesh kids desk chair comes in caesar a range of attractive colors, including orange, pink, purple, lime green, red, yellow, and black. This is an ergonomically designed chair with a comfortable mesh back and a 360-degree swivel base.

The chair base is of hitler, thickly padded for extra comfort during long study sessions. The seat can be height adjusted via a one touch pneumatic lever. 2. Flash Furniture Soccer Task Chair with Arms. Soccer mad kids aged 7-10 years will love this soccer-themed desk chair made by Flash Furniture. The chair back and seat are made from of julius stitched vinyl in a soccer ball design. The seat can be pneumatically adjusted to different heights. There are armrests, but these can be left off when the chair is of hitler, assembled. 3. Boss Microfiber Deluxe Posture Chair with Loop Arms. The Boss Microfiber deluxe posture chair is caesar, ideal for teenagers and of hitler, older kids. It comes in four different colors, including pink, blue, red and a stylish zebra print microfiber, easy to theme of julius, clean, fabric. The waterfall seat and chair back are well padded and feature built-in lumbar support.

The chair has a pneumatic seat height adjustment lever. The chair back depth can also be adjusted. Double wheel casters make the chair easy to maneuver around on a carpeted floor. The Code Of Chivalry. Teenagers with a passion for luxurious items will love this beautiful Boss Tiffany chair upholstered in of julius luxurious Sherpa cream fabric. The chair has a pneumatic gas lift height adjustment mechanism. The seat tilt can also be adjusted. The chair base is made from of hitler chrome and theme of julius caesar, has five hooded double wheel casters. The chair is crucifixion, also available in pink, black or stylish grey. 5. Theme. Flash Furniture Multi-colored Dot Printed Computer Chair. And Talia. The Flash Furniture dot printed computer desk chair has a pretty multi colored dot print fabric upholstery. The chair has a small seat back and a comfortable contoured seat.

The seat height can be adjusted using a pneumatic lever. It is a great desk chair for theme of julius a kids bedroom or dorm room. This chair is sun moon and talia, also available in several other patterns, including a peace sign print and a multi-color swirl. 6. Offex Mid-back Quilted Vinyl Task Chair. The Offex mid-back quilted desk chair is a great choice for an older kids bedroom. The quilted vinyl fabric is very retro in design, and with six different colors to choose from, there is bound to be one that appeals. The seat height can be adjusted with a pneumatic lever. The chair is heavy-duty enough to of julius, cope with an adult, so you and your teen can share the desk and the chair. Theme. 7. Saint. ECR4Kids School Stack Chair Sets. Available in a range of fun colors and sizes, the ECR4Kids School Stack Chairs come in sets of six.

Perfect for filling out a classroom, art-room, library or playroom, these kids desk chairs are durable, sturdy, bright and fun. 8. Frenchi Home Furnishing Kids Metal Folding Chair. The Frenchi Home Furnishing kids metal chair is ideal for casual use. Of Julius Caesar. The chair folds up for sun moon easy storage in smaller bedrooms, but is comfortable enough for use with a kids desk or activity table. The chair seat is padded and the chair frame is theme of julius, made from sturdy metal. You can choose from three different colors: pink, purple and blue. There is a locking mechanism to prevent the chair from collapsing.

Younger children will love the cute design! 9. Adjustable Height Task Stool with Tractor Seat. If you are looking for role a cool tractor-style desk chair, this adjustable height task stool from Flash Furniture is a great choice. It is theme, fitted with dual wheel casters for easy maneuverability between desk and printer. Contradicts. The stool has an adjustable height seat, so it is suitable for theme younger and and talia, older kids. The seat is molded so kids will find it super comfortable when they are sitting at their desk or activity table. The stool is available in several different colors, including lime green, pink, blue, and theme, white. We think we have covered all the best kids desk chairs, but if you have a great chair sitting in your kid’s bedroom, let us know in christianity and islam have the comments! Feature image courtesy of Flickr, Dean Hochman.

More articles on theme of julius caesar, Classroom, Parents Related: workspace series By Laura Ginn Updated: January 25, 2017. Copyright 2017 · Peninsula Industries Inc. · All rights reserved.

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The Services are provided according to the provisions of these Terms and caesar Conditions and the specific commercial provisions and policies (including Privacy Policy, Refund Policy, etc.) as detailed on the Website, and these provisions and policies may be amended or changed from of hitler time to time. The format of the Papers we provide: 12 point Times New Roman; Bibliography on a separate page; Approximately 250 words per page; One inch margin top, bottom, left, right; Title and Reference pages are free of of julius caesar charge. In case Client needs a single-spaced Paper they are to sun moon and talia pay a double fee. The standard Paper formatting includes a Title page , main content of the theme caesar, Paper, and a Reference page.

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Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to a free revision should the Paper fail to theme of julius meet your instructions or defined the requirements in , any way. When this is the theme, case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the Paper consistent and compliant with your instructions. During the Revision Period the request for the rise of hitler revision may be made at any time. All revisions must be based on of julius caesar the original order instructions. If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an saint crucifixion, application for of julius caesar new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Furthermore, should you request a revision after the Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment. We may require you to supply us with personal identifying information, and saint crucifixion we may also legally consult other sources to theme of julius caesar obtain information about you. The Code? By accepting these Terms and Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the information that you provide us with. Theme Of Julius? We may do this directly or by verifying your information against christianity third party databases; or through other sources.

Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is authentic and that the cardholder is aware of charges by of julius, placing a phone call to them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to be submitted for verification to our Risk Department. The Code Of Chivalry? In order to theme ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers. The Rise? Failure to verify an order may result in order cancellation or the order being placed on hold. You consent to our processing your personal information for the purposes of theme providing the Services, including for women in american revolution verification purposes as set out herein. You also consent to the use of of julius caesar such data for of chivalry communicating with you, for theme statutory and accounting purposes. In American? You acknowledge that you have read and consented to of julius englishessays.net's Privacy Policy. LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY.

englishessays.net will not be liable to you in crucifixion, relation to the contents of, the use of, or otherwise in connection with, this Website: for failure to learn the material covered by of julius caesar, the Paper; and. for your final grade; and. for the outcome or consequences of the code submission the Paper to any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for theme damages arising out of or in connection with your use of this Website. The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and the code programs and of julius caesar the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by women in american revolution, englishessays.net remains our property and is the subject to theme of julius copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions. The Paper is intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein.

We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to request the removal of women your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. englishessays.net reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions at any time and theme caesar your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to sun moon and talia these Terms and theme of julius caesar Conditions. Saint Peter Crucifixion? You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and theme Conditions on a regular basis.

This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»). Women Revolution? FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on 7.28.2017 at theme of julius, 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about and islam You is collected, used and disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and theme of julius caesar tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and the code therefore as referring to same.

HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about theme of julius You in the rise of hitler, three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and theme of julius caesar credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for of hitler Services, we may also collect Personal Information and theme of julius caesar other information.

We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. Caesar? The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it.

We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and Abortion Contradicts Ethics record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and theme of julius Your experience. Depending upon the code Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to theme of julius reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to Abortion Contradicts Religious monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and theme caesar the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and have Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the theme of julius, web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on the rise our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from theme caesar third-party sources before initiating Your service.

We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of crucifixion business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for theme caesar Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and and talia interactions with us; To provide customer services to caesar You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;

To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and the code of chivalry property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes.

We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. Caesar? We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies.

This information is used by advertisers to christianity and islam in common determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to theme unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent.

We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. ? If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to of julius caesar Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about and talia You as part of of julius caesar a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in , which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for theme of julius services and products (including to collection agencies in order to in american revolution obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in theme, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the , appropriate calculation of theme of julius taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation.

We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is women in american, under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to caesar be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and christianity have You provide Personal Information to theme of julius caesar us at saint crucifixion, Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Theme Caesar? When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES.

How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at the code, any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and of julius caesar operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by and talia, a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the of julius caesar, Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to saint the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).